Function principle

- from the point of view of the environment adaptation -

Revised edition

Iwao Otsuka

Mainly from the sociological point of view, to organize the function concept, it has proposed a new theory.

table of contents
table of contents

101 What is the function principle

2005.02 Iwao Otsuka

[ Abstract ]

The functional principle, at the time of observation and analysis of the target, the target is what kind of work = "function function is a way of thinking that claims to put the emphasis on what has a".

Target to be observed, analyzed the function doctrine, life, such as home appliances and objects of non-life, such as buildings, human and biological, the organization is their aggregate, up to society, over a wide range.

Function = "function" with the target is to solve the problem faced on the life faced by the target and its user, help to achieve the goal, which is some kind of work. Taken further thorough investigation, "function", the target users, to survive in an environment that vicissitudes, helps to keep alive-proliferation, it is some kind of work, and it can be said.

The functional principle, at the time of observation and analysis of the target, the target is what kind of work = "function function is a way of thinking that claims to put the emphasis on what has a".

Well "but this camera has a bad design, function has been enhanced," but is it say that, this is, the product ( for example, a camera ) the appearance and feel of, such as decorative Look & Feel Apart from, the product, it has a built-in fundamental reason that is required, it is, it comes to it the product is included "function". Function principle is the idea to focus on this built-in "function".

Target to be observed, analyzed the function doctrine, life, such as home appliances and objects of non-life, such as buildings, human and biological, the organization is their aggregate, up to society, over a wide range.

In addition, the target of the function principle is not only specific physical presence, such as the products and human living body, for example system of the state and the enterprise, law and mechanism, a mechanism, such as a system, even non-physical presence, It is the target.

For example, "This law is effectively functioning" is made often say that, this is, the law has a certain function, it indicates that that is the target of the function principle.

In this case, the function = "function" with the target to solve the problem faced on the life faced by the target and its user, help to achieve the goal, which is some kind of work. Taken further thorough investigation, "function", the target users, to survive in an environment that vicissitudes, helps to keep alive-proliferation, it is some kind of work, and it can be said.

For example, in the case that "the law is functioning effectively", is the law, determined individual, or the law that has been living there under its control, the State to operate ( organization, society ) the survival of, well to survive it is shown that has helped.

Alternatively, the "function is used during software development time and spreadsheet software operation function " is, solve the user's problem to use the software, goals, is a generic term for work that will help to turn survival.

For example, if you want to take advantage of the character that has been input from the keyboard of the computer successfully picked up and is, C language if the function getchar () if Toka use, I want to know the balance total on this month of financial Now, Excel of the SUM function is Toka use.

Function principle, the target is why necessary to the observation and analysis, reveal the reason for existence.

For example, the camera functions for the human beings, the things reflected in the human field of vision, leaving as a recording on the spot, not disappear later, by do not forget to, human, storage capability that would go to forget more and more things it is to complement the limit. Visual status of the place ( for example, an earthquake ) by recording, it is possible to perform the maintenance as evidence, for example, "How Did corresponding at that time again occurred earthquake later ? " Said a problem when the precedent information to the resolution is needed, without the need to resort to a faint memory, draw a clear information. This is the camera of the function, which is the only reason for the existence of a camera.

In this way, the function principle, the need of the target, and the presence or absence of reason, to clarify the degree of importance, on the contrary, to reduce unnecessary, the target that do not need, scraped off the flab on life that there is an effect that it is.

(c) 2005 Iwao Otsuka

201 classification of existing functionality doctrine

1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

Abstract ]

conventional functions doctrine, in another field, divided as follows.
psychological, (2) sociological, (3) ecological, (4) biological, (5) linguistic, (6) of design ( civil engineering and construction science, product design and design ) , (7) software ( program function )

Conventional functional principle is the another field is divided as follows.

(psychological function principle Malinowski typified)
sociological function principle ( Radcliffe-Brown , Parsons , Merton typified et al.)

ecological functions principle
Biology function principle

linguistic function principle

design functions principle ( civil engineering and construction science, product design and design )

(7) software functions in principle ( program function )

(1) psychological function principle of the functions, are intended to illustrate the fulfillment of human needs or psychological factors are members of society. (4) biological function principle of, the function will be described from the point of view of life survival of the individual organism. These are microscopic-individualistic-element theory of nature is strong.

On the other hand, (2) sociological function principles and (3) ecological functions principle of the function of the whole society or community systems encompasses individuals, those described from the perspective of maintenance and survival of ecosystems , and the strong macroscopic, holistic personality.

In conventional social science, these particular, (2) is sociological function principles, 1950 ~ 70 about the age, but boasts rise, thinking, directed to maintain the social situation cage, in response to the criticism that can not be effectively explain social change, have stalled. JCAlexander by et al., But "neo-function principle" has also been proposed, the basic idea, remains within the boundaries of traditional sociological function principle, reconstruction, modification, seems to be aimed at sophisticated .

The field of science to study the interaction between the environment organisms (including humans) is an ecology (ecology). In conventional ecology, there was the concept of functional principle, it functions were those dark overall the principle specific color regarded as a work necessary to maintain and survive the entire ecosystem.

take a psychological function standpoint of the principle of Malinowski in, it captures the function as to meet the psychological needs of human beings.

However, not "=" is the actual desire sufficiency state and environmental adaptation state is in. For example, that smoking is, but to satisfy the psychological desire to change of pace, life support ( securing the level of environmental adaptation ) and from the point of view of, such as cause lung cancer and nicotine addiction, with a negative effect.

biological function principles include, in terms of focusing on individuals is similar to the psychological function principle, the function, without regarded as realizing the mere psychological needs satisfied, environmental adaptation of the human living body , that is, from the perspective of whether or not aid in life support in the environment, is different in that.

According to biological function principle, cigarettes, becomes prone to lung cancer and nicotine addiction, that is more likely to result in death, is because it describes the inverse function of pests to be given to a living body.

In the conventional function principle, the sociological function principle and ecological functions principle (holistic social system-ecosystem theory), can not see the movement of the individuals that make up the society. To say or so, has the psychological function principle (element theory psychological desire theory), the function lacks be seen from the point of view of environmental adaptation. In the biological function principle, the weaknesses of such psychological function principle to some extent clear.

The above description, it may be paraphrased as follows. Psychological and biological function principle, it can be said with respect to the focus on the individual, sociological function principle is, focus on the survival of the entire society (it is not possible to capture the movement of individuals). Sociological or ecological function principle can be said to society and ecosystems have focused on environmental adaptation in that, to seek a condition to continue to survive and adapted in the environment.

linguistic capabilities principles of the language, taken as human social phenomenon, language, humans is a tool for performing the social interaction activities, we consider that the main work is transferred. Humans, and whether the problem is using how the language in the society. Communicate 2 between people, what, under what circumstances, how to try to clarify or transmitted. Other than grammar, words of meaning and function, information structure, attention is focused, such as the transmission method. Humans, between others the language is than used for exchanging information necessary for its own survival, in that sense, the language can be considered as having an effective function to the human environmental adaptation .

(6) design function principle of, in the design of such products and architecture, unrelated to human and biological environment adaptation, it does not contribute decoration, shape, and removing the work of the remainder, necessary to the realization of the work that will help the environment adaptation it is a concept that values that squeeze Do configured only to the simple.

For example, a function in the building, rain, wind, cold, heat, some to the point of avoiding the enemy. In other words, avoid being directly exposed to the environmental changes that threaten human survival, is a work that will help to protect themselves, the building was equipped with the same "functions". The construction of "functional principle basis", independent of the work to help the human survival, extra decoration and shape ( unevenness, color, etc. ) by removing the exclusively necessary configuration to the realization of the work ( windows, pillars, walls, doors ... ) focused only on ( highlighted by extruding or its configuration to the front ) is building.

(7) software functions principles, when the software program can help human survival, program, the "useful" part group = "function which acts as function regarded as consisting group". In the source code, as a component, as a function of the batches and the divertible routine otherwise, all functions function of, by part of, improve software productivity, therefore, the human environment adaptability to use it to improve.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

202 classification of function

Iwao Otsuka

[ Abstract ]

function can be classified as follows.
Positive Function ( human help survival ) and inverse function ( threaten the survival of the human )
physical function ( help the survival of human being incorporated into the object and material ) and physiological ( activity maintenance of human biological need to ) and psychological ( psychological vibrant human, you need become healthy state ) function
natural function ( petroleum, natural resources such as grain ) and, artificial function ( tools, processed products, such as products, news information such as the delivery )
..... etc. ( for more information, see text )

[ Positive function and reverse function ]

Conventional sociological function principle (RKMerton) the distinction between the positive features and inverse functions have been proposed by, from the standpoint of function principle,
a positive feature, refers to acts generally in the direction to help human survival and it is captured. So far, what has been expressed in the word "function", unless otherwise stated, is that this "positive features".
reverse function, when refers to the act generally in the direction that threaten human survival, captured. Conversely functional part in society, though the living body, can be understood in the same way as diseased.

In the society is that of a pathological group = reverse function group, gangsters, and thieves are examples.

Reverse function population in the society, threatening the survival of others (environmental adaptation). Alternatively, it causes a reduction in the environmental adaptation level of the others. Threaten the maintenance of the level.

Come to take a herd of insects as an example, the pest correspond to the reverse functions population, beneficial insects corresponds to a positive functional group.

Human actions are, the more if the reverse functional, there is a tendency that punishment becomes heavy.

● removal of the reverse function part in society ( recovery of dysfunctional part )

In human organism, to remove the inverse function part, eliminate the malfunction is the role of the physician. In its work, there is a physiological-psychological level.

For example, dentist,
takes the pain teeth - psychological
recovery of the ability to take nutrients to fix the state of the teeth, such as tooth decay - physiological
responsible for work such.

In society, to remove the reverse function part, will eliminate the dysfunction, it is the role of correction, probation officer. Its work is of a social pathology level. The role of correction, probation officer, fix the reverse function part of the society as a "society of the doctor", it can be positioned.

Because social pathology level, is in fact in a psychological and physiological is. Normal of doctors, one by one against to the individual of the psychological and physiological problems, correction, probation officers = "society of the doctor" is to target the psychological and physiological of when it involved the interaction of multiple human to.

● departure and environmental adaptation

Environmental adaptive, positive functional deviations (for example, scientific new invention, put out a new idea that deviates from the average idea how in the scientific community) and not (environment maladaptive, reverse functional) deviation (for example, such as drug addicts) and it can be considered. The former, because it helps the environment adaptation, is considered to be a rather aggressive should support departure. As is conventional, the deviation, those of socially harmful reverse function, and should not be considered just.

[ Physical features and physiological and psychological functions ]
function, physical as divided into a psychological and physiological ones.

(1) Physical Function objects ( micro-macro ) incorporated into, work required on humans to survive as a physical presence. Construction of dams for flood control, transportation and other areas ( opportunities by functional exchange ) such as roads and railways to ensure it is believed that with this physical function.

(2) in a physiological surface physiological functions human, meet the necessary desire to survive "work". Sterilization of the order to expel the pests and pathogens ( insect ) active ingredient in the drug, nutrition component with the vegetables and fish made a meal of the material in order to take the nutrition, the functions of the artificial dialysis to remove the unnecessary components in the body, considered to have the physiological function.

(3) by the consumption of psychological function function, to improve the mood ( mood settles, etc. ) , produce the vitality of tomorrow, to amplify the feeling that you live, seeping motivation and spirit to a new environment adaptation , such it is possible to enjoy the benefits of environmental adaptation. For example, the heart of warmth, comfort .. is one that results.
For example, "warm" ( warmth of this case, not physical, psychological ones ) are multiplied by the words, become psychologically pleasing state, psychologically it will happen, such as are supported. Human beings, by being psychologically support, takes place the promotion of health and welfare, more likely to survive. Counseling the song with the lyrics that encourage the people, for the people that have trouble giving the healing psychological, it is also considered to have a psychological function.

Function, (1) - (3) is considered that it is most often corresponds to a multiple of. For example, is the case provide a comfortable temperature by the air conditioning. The function is embedded, the object of air conditioning ( appliances ) is. On the other hand, thermal comfort air conditioning is provided, which supports requests the human physiological and psychological. In other words, the work is more of a comfortable temperature Hakadori, hit the society, leading to the increase in both quality and quantity of useful features.

[ Natural features and artificial function ]

Function is, roughly,
Natural natural resources ( oil, grain, etc. )
artificial processed goods ( tools, such as the product ) information ( news, etc. )
can be divided into.

[Essence ( foundation ) functions and decorative ( remainder ) function]
and the function, relate to direct environmental adaptation (essential functions, basic functions, influence the survival, essential), others do not there is a (decorative function, extended functionality, either good or may not be present).

Function becomes redundant state (born afford the supply side of the function), a function is generated and consumed, the more "decorative". In the function consumption side, the greater the spending on things not directly related to the life-support. Function in the supply side, function once spread and is no longer a new function consumption is carried out to every corner of society, function so that the trouble will be left over. So, will be further and attempt is made to re-distribution with the only extra features (decorated) a little.

Confrontation of the function principle and decorative principle (Rococo, etc.), such as those found in the building.

"Decoration" is a neutral for the environment adaptation. Since there is no harmful even useful for environmental adaptation, used for idling (spare state) elimination of the Leisure's.
However, environmental adaptation and seemingly unrelated things (paintings, etc.) but ( such as stress reduction ) there is related to the environment adaptation (help) can forget there's not.

Remainder ( idling ) ← top luxury surplus value
environmental adaptation ← foundation essentially function value

The remainder is a remainder that meet the environmental adaptation conditions, that you have is a luxury.
Luxury that holds, as a premise to meet environmental adaptation state.

[ Longevity function and the short-lived function ]

Functionally, a function of long-lasting, unnecessary made in a short period of time ( obsolete ) is a function.
For example, the functions of fresh food, if not placed in the refrigerator, rotten in a short period of time, eaten will not ( will not perform its function ) , so it is short-lived. On the other hand, the function of the reinforced concrete buildings, because it has several decades, is a long-lived.

In the engineering field, the early obsolescence of function ( for example, a personal computer ) . One after another new and improved function (CD-ROM from the drive, DVD-ROM , etc. to drive ) in order to appeared. Older functions ( data storage capacity less CD-ROM drive ) in the form to be repainted as overlying entirely covers from above, newer functions ( data storage capacity of many DVD-ROM drive ) is replaced.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

301 survival function principle, environment adaptive function principle

Iwao Otsuka

[ Abstract ]

The "function", regarded as the "environmental adaptation, (which the) serves to help survival." Function and the individual organism - human individual environmental adaptation, which improves the degree of survival ease, the minimum unit of outreach environment useful for environmental adaptation, tools environmental adaptation, or humans in the environment it can be regarded as acts to help to make it more survival.

When people buy consumer electronics products, the problem the "function". In that case function refers to itself "work help to daily life". Day-to-day life refers to the process of going to survive in that was surrounded by the environment. Therefore, the function of household appliances, the user, in order to survive through the day-to-day changes in the environment, work with the tool, seen as.

For example, refrigerator, do not cause food poisoning even in hot summer, such as keeping the freshness of the food, is intended to help it survive the people under the environment of a hot summer. Such a refrigerator (cold) function, given by thorough investigation, seen as working for environmental adaptation of the user (to survive under the given circumstances).

We made the refrigerator is a home appliance manufacturer, considering further thorough investigation, a human aggregate. Therefore, the refrigerator, the consumer electronics manufacturers humans, other consumer against (human), in order to provide the function of the environmental adaptation of sustained cold function, can be considered as material resources. From this fact, the word "function", "(human beings is to provide to others) survival, effective work for environmental adaptation" it can be seen that the likely say to have a meaning.

In this view, "function", "environmental adaptation, (which the) serves to help the survival" as do not can be regarded. In other words, functions as the individual organism - human individual environmental adaptation, which improves the degree of survival ease, the minimum unit of outreach environment useful for environmental adaptation, environmental adaptation tools or human environment seems can be regarded as a work, which helps to make it more survive in.

Alternatively, in the earthquake, buildings destroyed, power failure, by the water outage, the function of the hospital was reduced ( no longer function ) , it is a say that. In this case, the function acts to help the life of the people, the life of the people, work to bring to the direction that is easier to maintain, be regarded as.

Or, in communication between human beings, consider a mobile phone that is spreading at a rapid pace. A mobile phone, compared to traditional wired phone, wherever at any time, made it possible to make take in touch with the necessary others. Portability of the phone, which has rid the time and space constraints of communication at once, human beings were allowed to expand the communication possible range of activities.

The expansion of communication range of activities, from the others, the information that will help, anytime, anywhere ( without time and space constraints ) , much obtained easily made the point, in a direction to ensure that is to = easily survived easier to life the people It was allowed to progress.

Therefore, the mobile phone functions, the user, the communication opportunity with others, by securing in the form of getting rid of the time and space constraints, so that it is possible to obtain information and assistance from others anywhere anytime It is a work that, this work is, acts in a direction to increase to ensure the survival chance of the user, and it can be said.

( In the mobile phone, In addition to this, because it is caught the other party with a mobile phone at any time, it becomes difficult to accumulate the stress that it can not talk very much, even in this regard, there is an effect of longevity more people, and also say ) .

Other, air conditioning of the work ( function ) is also in the room, by keeping a comfortable temperature, frees the user from the stress, to help survive, is considered to be around.

To survive in the environment surrounding their (environmental adaptation) is an essential item for biological (living organisms) are organisms. In that respect, can be said that even human beings is one of the companions of the organism, we are constantly faced with the need for environmental adaptation. Functions organisms, including humans or consumed or produced, in order to perform life support to adapt to the external environment (safety, such as for).

As described above, the conventional functional principle, that is, in theory to try to understand the phenomenon of social and ecosystems to the keyword the word function, capture the function survival of the human (or biological organisms), as work to help the environment adaptation it does not "survival function principle" the function principle "environment adaptive function principle", the "function" of the case, "environmental adaptive function", to be named provisionally.

For organisms, including human beings, basically, good ( preferred ) of the state,
that he himself survive,
their own ( including the genetic and cultural copy ) is, in the environment, increase, the spread,
the survival conditions surrounding themselves better,
it is considered that such. State in which the item is likely to realize is, the degree of environmental adaptation of human beings - organisms ( environmental adaptation level ) can be said to be a high state.
Then, the human-organisms, work required in order to achieve these items, " ( environment adaptive ) is a function".

Environment adaptive function principle, the function of the human-organisms ( personal-organization, social ) environment adaptation, are those regarded as working to help survival, to sum up the root of the various functions principle. It is a hard-software such as goods and institutions, with the only work required for the environment adaptation, that was narrowed down to work, the framework only, to be refined and to those who have lost the relationship with no decoration to the environment adaptation enable. By doing so, of how hard software such as goods and institutions why necessary, it is possible to poke the essential core.

● environment adaptation and natural and man-made material

scope of application of the environment adaptive function principle is not intended to be limited only humans and organisms.
In nature or artificially produced substance, storage stability, viability, there is one low high stability.
High stability, "strong" material is an environment adaptive materials, gold and dioxin not altered by a rarely corresponds to this. On the other hand "weak" materials are altered to cause material as soon as not careful, such as iron oxidizes when exposed to oxygen in the air comes into contact with this.
Work to help self-preservation of these natural and man-made materials, for such a substance, it is a "functional".
For example, the container for blocking iron from oxygen, for the raw iron, without alteration to the iron oxide, a "functional" in terms of continuing to survive intact.

If you also take into account these points, function and is, in an environment in which the vicissitudes, self-preservation - the growth of substance-life in general, be regarded as a work that will help to maintain.

● Unit of the environment adaptation

unit of entities that conduct environmental adaptation, necessarily, personal, individual, not only with the particles, they form with each other interact, society, organization, company, state, etc. also, the environment adaptation seen as mainly carried out.

Accordingly, the scope of environmental adaptive function principle, individuals, in addition to an individual, that is an aggregate, social, considered organization enters.

● definition of a conventional dictionary of the word "function" (reference)

A. sociology small dictionary 1997 Yuhikaku

(1) dynamic activities that various elements that make up the whole that there is engaged in (home)

(2) it is society any organism, a prerequisite → functional requirements that must be met in terms of going to survive any whole or system

(3) partial effect of action or act plays for the entire maintenance and survival

.... functional requirements as a prerequisite on the system will survive, serve components of the system are allocated

B. Kojien Iwanami Shoten

(1) of the works, (2) specific roles with each factor constituting the whole each other and linked to each other

● "human ecology of Chicago School (human ecology) How is different Where is the same as the"?

1915 1940 I was actively carried out human ecology, selection basis of the human environment, the distribution, the spatial that are affected by the adaptive various forces, directed to a temporal relationship.

Human ecology, Park According to the, "What the various forces acting within the urban community is aimed to describe the unique set form of the population and the mission that brought in cooperation", are. On the other hand, Mckenzie according to the spatial and sustainable relationships "human are organized, the environmental -. Is in the change of the process corresponding to the combined action of the cultural force human ecology, this effect of and principles, in order to ascertain the nature of the power to create them, it is in a "to study the process of these changes.

Such human ecology, in terms of focusing on the interaction between humans and the environment, is the same as the environment adaptive function principle, such division of labor and functional requirements E.Durkheim , T.Parsons theory and found functional principle theory binding of the attempt has not been made. In other words, the human ecology, the concept of "function" is lacking. Environment adaptive function principle is intended to make up for it.

● environment adaptive function doctrine, or not environmental determinism? 

Be focus humans by environmental adaptation is environmental determinism, humans are unilaterally define its action by the environment, become be regarded as passive presence, it is conceivable that criticism occurs that.

Against this criticism, in the adaptive behavior of the human environment, human behavior is not necessarily exactly the passive to the environment, and can also be considered. Humans, to increase the adaptation level to the environment, to result encourage voluntary-actively environment, feedback from the side of the environment, it returned in the form of newly defining the person's behavior that encourage environment come, in terms of, human behavior there than it can be said that the environment is determined, not subjectivity of the human side is lost.

For humans to adapt to the environment, is not or perform no discovery and invention in until now, the way of their active behavior (aggressive attack to the environment) is changed by as soon as the environment surrounding the human being come. Defined by the environment of human behavior, human → environment → human → environment .... such, is of being taken as part of a continuing mutual provisions of the cycle of the human beings and the environment, some of its cycle, the human by environment is considered active lobbying is also included to.

To environmental adaptation result (generating and exchange and consumption functions for adapting) leads to modification of the environment, creating aspects of new environmental adaptation.

Environmental adaptation → modification of the environment in which the adaptation brings → new environmental adaptation. . .

Such as, and proactive outreach to the human environment, there is a circulation of the feedback from the environment.

Man, it tries to adapt to the environment ( that is to be obtained the release from Example cold ) as environmentally proactively encourage results (eg heavy oil fuel), and new environmental (warming next stage It becomes the environment), again approaching the adaptation to humans. In that sense, human beings, each time to do a new outreach to the environment, always be said to be faced with new environmental adaptation.

● in the human take action, or not than many others not related to the environmental adaptation?

Humans, not related to the direct environmental adaptation, also to take a decorative action, such as the fashionable, can be regarded as being possible only because they can be basic environment adaptation. In that sense, with an emphasis on whether or not it is fundamental environment adaptation, it is necessary to think about the theory.

● Why unsuitable in the existing environment sociology? 

Environmental and social science, by human beings, aimed at achieving better environmental adaptation level of their own, artificial modification of the environment ( automotive exhaust gas emission ) by, rather decline of the human environment adaptation level ( forest destruction caused by acid rain ) is brought about, are those dealing with the dilemma.

Environmental and social science, bringing the ecological point of view in sociology, such as call attention to environmental destruction (environmental protection), but the environment surrounding the human beings that are in the target can be evaluated, function concept of function principle and environmental adaptation not aware of the association between, there is a problem in that. In short, it is the concept of "function" is lacking.

How to, human beings and is a work that will help to maintain the life of the non-human organism, " ( ecological ) while maintaining the function", in order to further improve the environment adaptation level, the outreach of the natural , to continue to explore how it can be done, the mission of the new environmental sociology plus the "functional" point of view, is considered.

● functionality and value

Human values are, more than human beings is an organism, it = be useful for environmental adaptation to survive ( that contribute to environmental adaptation level improvement ) that it is good, be determined to be the case, that that it is bad is not the case many. In that respect, the function of the work to bring the man to the environment adaptation, with a positive value for humans, and it can be said.

● requirements engineering (requirements engineering) associated with

requirements engineering that have been made in the field of software development from the 's, in order to develop the system is effectively used, it argues that there is a need to satisfy a sufficient drew's specification the customer's request.

In this case, the customer needs, by introducing a system, companies that compete ( others ) than it should survive somehow well, which was based on the desire to increase the viability level, these requests realized , increasing the viability, that leads to increased environmental adaptation level customers. In this respect, the requirements engineering, state requests are as should be satisfied occurs, i.e., a state where the cavity to be able to have met in order to enhance the environmental adaptability, to satisfy the cavity, environmental adaptation function in the function principle = said to be "working to improve the environment adaptability".

● value analysis (value engineering) and related

value from their's is widespread is the concept analysis is a technique to analyze the function of products and services. In the value analysis, function and is the product or service is a nature to satisfy the desire of the purchaser. In value analysis, the value of products and services, which they are divided by the cost function to provide, is to be revealed as the suitability of the cost for the function.

In this case, the function is, but the translation, which is regarded as a nature to satisfy human needs, given function is why thorough investigation that it can be used to satisfy human needs, they are, of the environment in which human beings are changed various deficiency to face in going survived the medium = continue to environmental adaptation, is considered to be because they have the property to fill the shortage of state. In this respect, of value to humans products, and services, it is considered to have the effect of easily surviving and adapting human more environmentally. From this point of view, value analysis, it can be said and the environment adaptive function principle, to be related to large in terms of the fundamental way of thinking.

It should be noted that, for example, as covet electric refrigerators, there is also a way of thinking to those with a desire other than human beings exist.

● environment adaptation and gene

Conventionally, in Darwinism and social biology, the concept of "survival of the fittest" have been taken. This is regarded a sufficiently environmentally compatible, limited fittest, and can be a winner only survive.

However, if turned over this, can also holds the idea of "unsuitable's not survival". In short, if not compelling environment maladaptive an idea that all survive. Looking at the reality of the organisms, except for compelling poor workmanship ones, is a feeling that the surviving aligned, or not than being there is more here thinking.

Alternatively, the "neutral survival", also in the adaptation, not a maladaptive, others say if even for the environment adaptation, may also holds the idea that survive. Biological, and there are many things that there may decorative specification or may not be many, this thing is, it can be said that this "neutral survival" indicates that you are satisfied.

There organism, even had how good genes environmental adaptation, in the gene invalid aspects, if not to conform to the environment in addition to the gene whose organism harboring, become environmental maladaptive it is to be fully considered that will die.

There organism and has an excellent gene environmental adaptation, thus survive the organism has a set, not useful not at all to other environmental adaptation genes simultaneously.

In short, in considering the environmental adaptation of the organism's genes, not very realistic to see the good and bad of an individual gene, the entire gene captured by the "one-set", in it, environmental adaptation of the fly if there is a gene that corresponds to the card that matches the, including in "survival" the rest of the unrelated gene, the entire gene if there should be the perceptions of "death" in one fell swoop. This is, it can be said that the "one-set principle" of a gene.

(c) 1998-2006 Iwao Otsuka

302 environmental adaptation level

Organisms, including humans, an index indicating the degree to go to survive and adapt to the environment, in the following, to be named the "environmental adaptation level".

Human-organisms, the environment adaptation levels, and it fixed more, but can survive, think when it comes to less than certain, will die, and.

Accordance upper and lower environmental adaptation level, the qualitative and quantitative each side of the function, it is possible to classify in the following figure.

Description: Environmental adaptation level

Human social activities, in order to more easily survive, at least certain level of environmental adaptation level, if, in order to set as high as possible, with respect to natural and cooperate with one another, are focused to performing various outreach there. In that sense, the modernization of human society, and to improve the human environment adaptation level, there is a great relevance.

Way of environmental adaptation level, the difference of natural conditions ( dry / wet, high temperature / low temperature, high altitude / low-lying, wind, and are facing the sea, lakes, rivers / not ..) or the like, consisting of a wide variety.

Environmental adaptation levels of high state society, is considered to have the following properties.




Health of

People do not die, less likely to become sick. Born, easy to grow. Easy to live.



Life is not inconvenient ( which is convenient ) . Transportation and communication, the market is developed ( mutual exchange is likely to perform the function ) .



Security is good. Crime is less likely to occur. There is no danger. I can live with peace of mind.


Margin of

Life can afford to. Directly, there is no relationship with the environment adaptation, entertainment, games, art, etc., there is room for growth or, be accepted.

● environmental adaptation improve the standard pressure = EALIP

The organisms, including human beings, in the harsh environment, the environment adaptation level of their own, there is a desire or tendency to attempt to become that improve even a little, easier to survive. These, to try to improve the environment adaptation level of human-organisms, that of the inherent pressure that human-organisms faced, "environmental adaptation improve the standard pressure = EALIP (Environment Adaptation Level Improving Pressure) will be referred to as" .

For example, see taking improvement in communication technology as an example. 1990 circa, the speed of data communication using the computer, 2400Bps about was normal. However, technicians, higher level improvement in communication speed and convenience that it brings of ( not only the characters, such as until now, image and voice also send you a comfortable speed ) continuous technology improvement with the aim of effort, 2000 to bear fruit in the form of explosive growth to around, the Internet around the world, as a result, IT that revolution, resulted in a major social change. Became such a relentless technological innovation and the driving force of social change that it brings is inherent in the technology's minds, that would bring about the rise of the data communication speed, to aim for the convenience of improvements in living surface , in other words, the aim of better environmental adaptation levels is believed to have been no desire to pressure endless.

These, to try to increase the environmental adaptation level even a little, EALIP ( environmental adaptation improve the standard pressure ) is what, by human-biological, social generation and, social division of labor ( functional differentiation ) , the fundamental cause social change become a key cause.

Human beings, in one person, so it is difficult to win the environment adaptation level of high level, by creating a social-group, ensure that they do not share with others, or cooperate the function generated, the type of the generated function ( social division of labor, social functional differentiation ) by, to try to raise the environmental adaptation level. Moreover, not satisfied with the current environmental adaptation levels is possible to obtain a higher environmental adaptation level, attempts to change the current state of society, so that lead to social change.

Thus, the human-organisms, such as the pursuit of convenience, greater environmental adaptation level ( survived ease ) directing to seek, pressure inherent in human-organisms, EALIP ( environmental adaptation levels increased pressure ) is .

Of this pressure, the physiological and psychological grounds, where some of the Would ? Of their own, ease survived of in an environment that wheel of fortune ( including left-friendliness of the descendants ) physiological or psychological seek is an advanced civilization from human beings with, until the microorganisms of simple behavior, it is considered to have in common to organisms, have a genetic origin ( which is incorporated in the gene ) that would be is, can imagine. In human psychology, or it would not than has occurred from the innate part of the base ?

● highest of environmental adaptation level vs suitable and appropriate reduction

The act of improving the environmental adaptation level, and aims to insatiable highest of standards, appropriate reduction and appropriateness level ( acquisition environment adaptation level, stopping at the level that can be reasonably satisfactory ) are those aimed at, and Conceivable.

Be directed to the highest of environmental adaptation level, there is no need to environment adaptation originally, such as an attempt is made to obtain the luxury features, results in a waste-waste of the function ( = reverse functional ) On the other hand, the quality of the function by competition improve ( = positive functional ) .

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

303 environment function analysis

Iwao Otsuka

[ Abstract ]

instead of the "structural = Functional Analysis" conventional in sociological, advocate "Environmental = function analysis". Environment function analysis describes how each function, has helped how the various individuals of environmental adaptation. More specifically, "○○ why meaningful for the environment adaptation?", To no, describe the contents such as "○○ do? And it is why environment adaptive with is what kind of function?".

By incorporating the point of view of the environment function analysis to new, human beings of various actions and culture, what kind of function ( work to help the environment adaptation ) or with a, you will be able to easily analyzed.

in a conventional sociological function principle, structure = function analysis

Conventional T.Parsons sociological function principle according to ( social system theory ) in,

• "social system" is a system of interaction between multiple actors, each of the actors, are related to each other while play a role. The role is considered an important unit of analysis of the social system, the social system is also referred to as a "role system".

- "social system" is assumed to have a tendency to maintain the equilibrium state, the relationship between the role each other in order is stable, it must be institutionalized. A complex of institutionalized role, T.Parsons is defined as "system", it was regarded as a key element of the "structure" of the social system. The "structural analysis" of the social system, corresponds to the analysis of the system.

· Invariant elements of social system ( constant ) relative to the determined system as structure a, looked various variables that make up the social system, i.e. whether dynamic-variable element is how relevant this to. This is, T.Parsons is called the "functional analysis". Then, the structure, the concept that characterize particular relationship and the various variables of the system and the system was a "function". In that case, the capture function on the side of the "motivation" of human behavior is a psychological concept. A "functional" in the social system, indicating that the structure, that is, individual actors in the collective pattern of institutionalized role be motivated.

A "functional requirements" of the social system, is that the necessary conditions for the maintenance and survival of the social system. For social systems to maintain and survive, following 4 needs one functional problem, i.e. the functional requirements are satisfied (AGIL Scheme ) .




Adaptation (Adaptation)

Ability to provide a tool which is required to achieve the goals of the social system.


Goals (Goal gratification)

It determines a target of the social system, towards the achievement of its goals, to mobilize various resources of the system function.


Integration (Integration)

Various units constituting the system ( e.g., actor and its role, etc. ) the ability to adjust between.


Maintenance and tension of the processing potential pattern
(Latent pattern maintenance)

The pressure which tends to vary the institutionalized value system, the ability to attempt to retain a systematic stably, and the ability to handle the strain occurring in the system.

Function based on the viewpoint of the environmental adaptation analysis ( Environment - Functional Analysis )

in a conventional sociological T.Parsons these structures = function analysis, in which each function, describe whether the how help maintain the social structure is there.

On the other hand, the author proposes the "environment = function analysis". Environment = function analysis describes how each function, has helped how the various individuals of environmental adaptation. More specifically, "○○ why meaningful for the environment adaptation?", To no, describe the contents such as "○○ do? And it is why environment adaptive with is what kind of function?".

By incorporating the point of view of the environment = function analysis to new, human beings of various actions and culture, what kind of function ( work to help the environment adaptation ) or with a, will be able to easily analyzed.

For example, think about the existence of criminal law and commit stealing a heavy punishment is down. Steal, money, etc. that you have to give in order to receive the functionality provided by the others as a consideration a person continued to give a valid function to others, without going to give at all to others nothing of function unilaterally it is that comfortably would get. When this as it is allowed to stand for, people to lose the feeling that the effort to generate a valid function in the environment adaptation of others, leads to a turn each person into dysfunction. . Side effects such is born. Criminal law, in the sense of preventing such malfunction, an environmental adaptive. . . It can be analyzed and the like.

In conjunction with the above, it is considered that the function network analysis.

Function Chart (network) Figure, i.e., by writing an indication by connecting what function and a which functions are mutually related to each other in a network shape, it is possible to clarify the overall picture of the functional generator or exchanged consumption it should.

● and functional classification of the living body, application of industrial classification ( living body was taken as an example, the environment = function analysis )

For the living body, continue to environmental adaptation ( to live ) required functional material on the oxygen and water and nutrients, ( indicating the state of the external environment ) the information.

Functions of the respective organ in the living body is classified as follows.



Concrete example


Chip • grant

For encapsulating the function, to have, it puts function.

Erythrocytes is a functional material containing the oxygen.


Transportation and communication

Function ( substance ) carry, meditate function.

Functions ( such as. Ride material. Oxygen erythrocytes containing therein ) needed to carry the
moves the position of the functional, engine driving force ( a driving force to produce the oxygen. Information as a heart. Fuel moving the blood synaptic activity of neuronal cells ) ,
feature a passage passing ( vessels red blood cells carry oxygen flow )


Collection of cargo

Function ( substance ) function to collect from the outside.

In the lungs, oxygen from the external environment, is collected.
The mouth, stomach, intestines, nutrition and water is collected.
Brain function from the external environment ( material ) cause the information necessary action in order to get the.



Function ( material ) functions to store.

In the liver, collected nutrients, accumulated and stored.


Processing and modification

Function ( material ) to processing and modify the ( generation of new features ) function.

Various enzymes in the body, the underlying function ( substances ) and by chemical change, remake to those further with another new functions.


Residue processing

Treating the residue after consuming functions ( discarding the outer, recycling ) function.

The intravenous, unnecessary carbon dioxide is collected. In the kidney, to recycle once with water. Rectum, to release all the stool after the exhausted using nutrients to the outside.


Defense, conservation

External function inhibitory factor ( predators, shock, etc. ) function to protect the living from.

Ribs to protect the skull to protect the brain from the shock, the organ from oppression, such as the hands and feet to protect themselves from predators attack.

Thus, the environment = functional analysis, the extraction-classification results, in society, it is possible to utilize the industrial category. Also in society, it is generated and exchanged and consumption, basic functional material, the biological Similarly, because oxygen and water and nutrients, the information is considered to.
Various industries in society is, in most cases, the above-mentioned ( in vivo ) applies to somewhere in the functional classification, are considered. For example,


Concrete example


Chip • grant

Semiconductor, give the function of information processing, computer manufacturing industry.
The lump of iron, give the function of the food preparation, cooking equipment manufacturing industry.


Transportation and communication

Transportation industry, such as truck and rail.
Meditate on the wide area radio waves carrying the information, broadcasting and communication industries.


Collection of cargo

Farmers to harvest oranges, agricultural cooperatives of umschlagplatz to process gathered in one place the tangerine farmers took.
Collect taking the oil, petroleum mining industry.


Storage conditions

Keep pooled made products, warehousing.
Dealing with the deposits, banking.


Processing, modification

Changing the oil in plastic, petroleum chemical industry.


Residue processing

Municipal garbage treatment plant.


Defense, conservation

Security industry to protect the safety of people home and school.
Fiber industry that manufactures the clothing to protect the human body from the cold.


Exchange market

Replacement token ( money ) by using the, retail to encounter the product and the user. newly added

To become. To apply to the actual society, of the above-mentioned 7 in addition to the one, for the function exchange, "exchange-market" function ( such as the retail industry to encounter a product that the user is applicable ) is required, with the idea It is.

Above, environmental = the functional analysis, the same, biological even function analysis to model the, T.Parsons et structure = the functional analysis, have come up with a completely different analysis. This environment = in functional analysis, instead of the subject of analysis of whole organism, every single individual cell in vivo, because captures as a unit of survival-environmental adaptation.

Also, the biological and physiological systems saying was analyzed on the basis simply because there is no change in the nature of the basic functional classes, such as the degree of help environmental adaptation possessed by each function classification, each person by the incessant learning - invention, it has fluctuated to the incessantly new stage. For example, transportation functions ( such as trucking courier ) is, GPS with use of or the Internet, and it has made great strides, are examples.

● "environment = function" of the VCR function analysis ( for the function evolution )

Video deck, the image + sound, such as a television, a cassette tape, recorded or, is a device for reproducing the image + sound that has been recorded on the tape, which is a typical presence of consumer electronics products.

The functions of the video deck, and how, or help to the user's environment adaptation, classified from the viewpoint of, is as follows.


Concrete example

Evaluation criteria

Required ( useful for environmental adaptation ) reason


Handle ( information ) the amount and types of abundance

Recordable longest time of the corresponding video tape (3 existence of times recording mode ) . As well as terrestrial, whether you are also compatible with satellite broadcasting.

The greater good

As it can be stored a lot of information, apt to take the information necessary for the environment adaptation.


( Operating ) speed

Shortness of time it takes to rewind the video tape (400 -times speed ) .

Faster the better

Saves time, and the other, it is possible to turn to the environment adaptive behavior necessary.


( Handle of information ) granularity

Recordable image quality of granularity (S-VHS correspondence ) .

Detailed the better

Enough to store information that can be fine-grained, easy to grasp the details of the information required for the environmental adaptation.


Small and light of

The weight of the corresponding tape cassette, the size of carry ease (8mm video cassette vs VHS cassette )

Smaller, better light

Space range that can be carried is increased, spread the available applications ( increase the scene to help the environment adaptation ) .


( The operation of ) accuracy, error lack

The Times of television broadcasting, by matching the deck built-in clock, function the recording is started in time perfect

Fair exact

More accurate, it requires less missed information required for environmental adaptation.


( Operation of ) simplicity ( lack of operating procedures, see ease of operation, ease of looking for the function of determining )

The program reservation, it is not necessary to input one by one channel, such as individually start time, G to allow in only the code input

Fair simple

Requires only a psychological effort and stress is less necessary for operation ( psychological effort and stress is likely to survive as small as possible ) .


( Operation procedures and, dealing with information ) compatibility

Commonality of operation procedure of the conventional models. To different specifications format ( for a digital video camera ) image information, (VHS on a cassette ) degree which can be recorded by dubbing.

Better high.

The ability to ensure commonality in the handling of information, and learning effort of operating procedures, the frequency of operation mistake Heraseru. Increasing kinds of utilization can information, it is possible to contact a more variety of information.


( Handling of information ) purity ( secure )

Commercial, etc., not related to the original program content, the information of unnecessary content, automatically cut can function.

Better more.

Only the information necessary to the original environment adaptation, will be able to focus their attention on the viewer.


( Operational ) safety of security ( secure )

Such as children, due to the external of others, the ability to prevent the mischief with respect to the equipment ( child lock ) .

Safe fair.

To prevent malfunction caused by an intruder from the outside.

Function of the video deck, and to what a user is considered convenient = and environment adaptive to more life, it has been steadily refined year by year. This can be regarded as "the evolution of the function" is happening. Year after year, one of trial and error to the new features to be added to the video deck, what is useful, survival, and to be more convenient, it is going to evolved.

Function evolution, of human beings, new or develop effective functions by environmental adaptation, to improve the existing functionality to it more adaptable, the degree to which are adapted to their environment ( environmental adaptation level ) want to improve, it occurs has been a driving force, believed to desire.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

401 proposal of "dry function principle" - from the point of view of the free and independent individuals -

1998-2006 Iwao Otsuka

[ Abstract ]

In the conventional sociological, individual, individuals overall system encompasses, on behalf of the "wet functional principle" starting from the system, move freely separated from one another, the individual, individuals, "dry function starting from the particles the principle ", the newly proposed.

In the dry function principle, function, each individual, the individual, the survival of the particle, be regarded as working to help sustainable. In the dry function principle, the separation of each individual, independent, self-reliance, freedom is a prerequisite, each individual, individuals, the existing higher-level system that wraps around the particle ( society, organization, company ... ) is, individual, the individual survival if Soguwa to, once destroyed, reassembled and initialization, it tries to re-configuration. In that respect, society, organization, for companies such as, revolution, is the idea of reform-oriented.

Function principle is free to move separate from each other, the individual, individuals, and dry outlook starting from each particle, the individual, the whole system including individual, there is a wet view starting from the system.

Hereinafter, the former will be dry function principle, the latter is referred to as a wet function principle.

In the dry function principle, function, each individual, the individual, the survival of the particle, be regarded as working to help sustainable. In the dry function principle, the separation of each individual, independent, self-reliance, freedom is a prerequisite. Each individual, individuals, the existing higher-level system that wraps around the particle ( society, organization, company ... ) is, strictly, each individual, personal, tools to survive particles, only tool, individual, to the survival of the individual if Soguwanakere, once destroyed, reassembled and initialization, it tries to re-configuration. In that respect, society, organization, for companies such as, revolution, is the idea of reform-oriented.

On the other hand, in the wet function principle, function starts from the maintenance of the whole system surrounding the individual. Maintenance of the existing system, saving is its purpose. Wet function principle is, starting from the whole, as a whole and integrated individuals, fusion to the entire individual, buried, gear reduction, assumes the mutual integrated and harmonization of the whole and the individual. In this case, the system itself, individuals and has a different dimension of independent intention and movement. So to speak, an individual priority whole than treated as partial presence to contribute to maintain the overall personal hackers is a general principle idea. In addition, so as not to destroy the existing system, the point of trying to constantly adjust and change, with the status quo aspects. System collapse ( bankruptcy company ) , suicide, initialization is not considered.

Such as a conventional sociological functional principles and theories of ecological functions principle, the "wet function principle", the function for (individual human belongs) of society and ecological system maintenance and survival regarded as necessary. In that sense, it can be said that the individual in society and ecosystems are regarded as subordinate. Problems sociological or ecological function principle is to analyze the balance of the elements to various variables associated with each other in the social system and ecosystems ( equilibrium analysis ) . The most basic interest of sociological and ecological function principle is in the self-sustaining, or survival of the social systems and ecosystems. Thus, "functional requirements" as a condition necessary for the maintenance and survival of the system ( desire system, target ) sets the concept. The functional requirements to specify that it is necessary and sufficient for maintaining and survival of the system is the "Requirements Analysis".

In the dry function principle, function, regarded as necessary in order to maintain and survive (rather than social) only his own life the individual man himself. Society, between individuals to be to increase the environment adaptation levels, or the first time is generated by working together, is intended to be maintained. If, enough environmental adaptation level for each person, to be obtained by made the society, the individual, the ( generated ) or to destroy or erase the society, with the freedom to or leave. In that respect, the personal is not intended to be subordinate to the society. Survive entity, regarded as not a society is merely personal.

In the following dry function principle, such a conventional totalitarian, sociological, unlike the ecological functions principle, work required to "function", to individuals going to survive in the environment, the point of view be regarded as, to provide a new one. That is, the "function", the individual is in the interaction with the environment, in order to achieve the self-preservation so that it is not selection, is a work that is required, and look.

Dry function ISM, (1) from individual viewpoints of society, (2) is intended to be from the perspective of the interaction to adapt to the environment with the environment, reattempt capture the function principle.

Feature is one in which the human is required to maintain a constant or adaptive level to the environment, there is in need for only survive human individuals, not for society as a whole maintained , think that. Society and organizations, only means for human individuals survive, think that it is not only a tool.

Dry function principle

Wet function principle


Personal, individual, environmental adaptation of the particle

Maintenance of the entire system, environmental adaptation


Overall, the organization means view of the
whole, capture tissue, means an environment adaptation for the individual, as a tool )

Overall, the organization nature view of the
whole, emphasizing tissue itself )


Independence from the whole of the individual, independent, free

Subordination of the individual to the entire organization, fusion, harmony
control of individuals by the whole


The whole of a person
a whole, not just a tool for survival for an individual )
overall, disappear when no longer necessary for the individual )

Individual of a whole
individual is only a portion of the entire, the gear )
individual becomes a sacrifice for the whole )


Creative, transformative
personal environment adaptation to the current level organization that does not help, destroy the society, go create something new required )

Maintaining the status quo and maintenance of the entire organization


Psychological, biological function principle

Sociological, ecological function principle

● traditional social systems theory (T.Parsons, N.Luhmann, Minjin Yoshida .... by et al. ) Where is the difference between?

Dry function principle is also a social, differentiated functionally, each section mutually dependent on each other, in terms of capturing one system, the traditional social system theory ( wet function principle ) is the same as.

Dry function principle is different from the conventional social system theory, a point of view, tailored to the individual human being, it lies in the fact you are taking individualism. Movement for better environmental adaptation levels individuals, generating social, differentiation, varying, and capture points placed throughout society viewpoint from the beginning, in terms of further analysis of the social system, individuals analysis do not try to target, very different from the social system theory until now.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

411 function and self-expansion and the growth pressure = SE (I) P

If each person circulating their production functions society (group of people that may interact with each other),

(1) quality and to try to superlative (and attempt to increase as much as possible the quality)

(2) the amount of the attempts to maximize (and to spread the widest possible)

The manner each person's desire is a result, to enhance the way of function that circulates in the society, leading to the development of society. The back of these each person's desire, ability to generate their own will, to work as his own living things testimony (survival proof), it is conceivable that wants each person to generate the function.

Each person desire described above, the function or reputation associated therewith and their production,

(1) time even after remain better than to posterity (reportedly be) so I hope (time aspect)

(2) spread better between many others than to wish to proliferate (spatial aspects)

It is considered to be based on a very selfish motivation, resulting in its self-serving properties, lead to the mass increase of the functionality that circulates in the society, it is believed to contribute to maintaining an social development.

Then, this time, the function generated in their recognition of about is derived from officially on their (the identity of the function generated by itself) is securely maintained (for example, invented this feature is none other than "I" is (not a Mr. others) it is conceivable that wants to accurately conveyed) as to the public (this is, for example, the inventors display Ya of patent , it appears to display your name in the copyright holder display, such as books and music).

Such a selfish motive, "self-expansion ( growth ) pressure (Self Expansion (Increase) Pressure) shall be called even a" is inherent in the human-organisms, by considering and can be explained. In the organism, already at the gene level, copies of itself, a wider space, so as to survive longer time, trying to make, since it can be seen that worked primitive force, this self-expanding ( growth ) pressure, to the organism, can be considered to be a very basic pressure.

For a self-expanding pressure,

(1) creative type

Their own ( personal own ) what the original identity of, society ( in the = others ) and to spread to

(2) the same type of

Already it was generated by others,

Come continues for a long time until now, is also likely to last longer now ( persistent and likely )

= Time aspects

Already spread large, and it is likely to expand the status quo - further future

= Spatial aspects

Things ( large companies, religion, brand-name products such as ) and by integrating and the same of the self, an attempt is made at once a self-expansion and growth

That 2 are classified in different ways.

● self-expanding, growth and life

is successful life as a human being, is a well-played was life expansion and growth of this myself and to the world of its alter ego, failed life, failed to expansion and growth of their own and their alter ego is a life.

However, successes and failures of this life, do not know and do not see in the long run. In some cases, after the death of the person, its achievements been excavated, sometimes spread around the world and become famous. On the other hand, although sending a life between the blessed as a successful person that the person is alive, after death, rapidly or forgotten, been the subject of criticism, because sometimes leave a stigma.

● dilemma that is self-expanding pressure brings

Additional self-expanding ( proliferation ) pressure, such as the following, with sides that conflict with each other.

(1) To perform a self-expanding, the more you block the self-expansion of others, only that, my own self, increases opportunity to expand on the periphery of society. Therefore, in order to maximize the degree of self-expansion, so that attempts to interfere with the self-expansion of others. For example, comparative advertising or to be performed at the time of share battle of the company, is territorial expansion war of national each other, it is this appeared. This will ensure that they interfere with each other's environment adaptation, inverse functional ( functional inhibitory ) is.

(2) to perform a self-expansion, to improve the environmental adaptation levels of others around them, for the first time, made to be effectively performed. In short, if another person is not me to survive, in the others, self-replication does not remain. So, for the sake of self-expanding, it will be trying to actively help the environment adaptation of others. This will be mutually promoted mutual environmental adaptation, which is a positive functional.

Dilemma regarding such self-expanding is solved by the following mechanism.

(1) who provide their akin functions ( in competition with each other ) with respect interferes the self-expansion and environmental adaptability.

(2) who provide their different types of functions ( Those in need of their ability to generate, in a customer relationship with each other ) relative to facilitate the self-expansion and environmental adaptability.

Among these, (1) it is, with respect to himself and the likes of those = in-group, perform patronize, and contrary to the trend of the "in-group Biiki", there further, social psychological dilemma exists.

(c) 1998-2005
Iwao Otsuka

412 function generation ( production ) and consumption

In an environment adaptive function principle, the subject of production and consumption that human being regarded as a "function". In short, rather than a thing itself, what function that is included in the things, is the target of the generation and consumption, think that. When shopping, buy a function rather than buy things, think that. Consider, for example, when you buy carrots at the grocery store, carrots itself rather than objective, and it is an object to obtain a nutrient that has the functions necessary to the human body of maintenance, such as vitamin A, which is included in the carrots.

The concept of buying a function, for example, household appliances (video deck, such as washing machines) easy to understand that it while looking at the catalog of. Human beings to production and consumption "product" is a "vehicle" of the function, valid in environmental adaptation ( help ) the integration of functions ( and, what side was thought to feed ) or was specific things, abstract service or it was.

Also in economics, from words such as production and consumption of goods and services, and to the production and consumption of "functional", or not there is a need to promote the replacement of representation.

● intangible of the function

Services (advertising, hairdressing industry, etc.), it is often not considered a direct production, with some kind of function. Thus, people will pay a consideration to others that provided the service. It says that "service" can be said to be a manifestation of "intangible property (itself does not have the form)" in the function.

Function itself is intangible. Function, specific tangible materials ( metal, fibers .) That are on the ( e.g. refrigerator, clothes ) because many are often thought to what entity. However, to those of the intangible, such as the motion-brain work also, because there is work to help the living body of environmental adaptation, it can be said that the function there exists ( for example, a kitchen knife separating movement for making the food, can cook food bring to a state, of a place that is included in the ingredients, to allow absorption of nutrients that will help the survival ) . Alternatively, also information such as television image and music, is indispensable in terms of human beings to live, is a vehicle of function, and it can be said.

For example, functional food ( vitamin A ginseng containing ) in the vitamin A rather than the substance itself functions as vitamin A possessed serves to help life support living body is captured as a function.

● functional material and functional exercise

The above, in connection with the intangible of the function, the human and specific substances that work to help the organism of environmental adaptation was riding, a "functional material", it will be provisionally called. Also, functions to help environmental adaptation, operation and human-organism body, riding movement of inorganic objects, when they appear, will be referred to its motion "functional exercise".

● function generation

Function creator, humans, other organisms ( animals, plants ) , inorganic nature ( wind, rain, such as volcanic activity ) can be divided into, usually, in the form of mutually related to each other, it is often mixed with each other. Function creator is one that is doing some kind of dynamic activity.

Generation process of the function, some activity results of the functional creator, how useful to their environment adaptation, the Tsukaimichi, or considered by trial and error, begin to experiment. Then, once those were created by the activities of the function creator, if found to be used in environmental adaptation, how to mass-produce it, called, leading to the stage of commercialization and commercialization.

Function is in most cases a person can not be produced on their own. As nutrients, other organisms ( cereals and seaweed ) have to rely on. Alternatively, organic matter ( oil ) and inorganic ( mineral ) as in, there is a need to find looking for to already exist in nature.

For example, plants, nutrients ( carbohydrate potatoes ) and fuel ( firewood ) changes or the like, produce a substance that helps the human environment adaptation. This in itself is, by plants, a functional product to humans. If such plants are an environment for growing, amount of the maintenance, that is, able to assist the growth of the plant, corresponds to a function generator.

Target to perform the function generation, human physiology ( food → nutrition, air conditioning → temperature, etc. ) , as well as human psychology ( food → delicious, feel the air conditioning → comfortable temperature ) are also included.

Whether there of the generated function, (1) human itself ( human internal ) , (2) stamped on the outside of the object, the 2 there ways. (1) In the exercise of such a hammer beating, (2) In the information printed on paper, and the like correspond.

● function generation and system size

A group of human beings, if you were considered a system, is divided into a huge system (agencies, large companies) and the micro-system (a state in which the 3 division of labor to 4 people are). 
System (input and output for the life support) begins with one person (such as life also doing Nan'yaku alone in a desert island). 
Giant system ( e.g. the workplace giant plants ) consists of a stack of micro-system (group).

A feature are generated, if you need the ability of people in many different fields, increases the size of tissue needed for function generation.
Because there is a limit to each person's communication skills, is a collection of others that can be situational awareness alone, a small population ( micro-system ) making them multi-layered to stacking ( stacked result is a huge system ) . While passing between the subpopulations stacked, gathering attracted gradually various functions, sewn to one organically, as having a high degree of environmental adaptability, are finally generated.

● shortage and replenishment of the function

consumption of function, deficiency, lack, is not enough of, the human of such life forms is inherent, it is the essence of life.

The life form, function (those that help the survival) and constantly requires, be regarded as the presence of consumption. In that respect, for life, function essentially been consumed, insufficient, it is continually replenished is required there.

The life is to live, it is necessary to replenish the production or collection in the constantly their own hands the function.

If capture the essence of life as negated entropy (opposite entropy) function is regarded as providing a negated entropy (opposite entropy) in organism.

● function consumption

Function consumption performed by the organism, to no material was riding function, function from the activity and exercise, including, taken as a process of extracting and digesting functions required for survival.

Above process,

function substance or exercise → extracted and digested function + dregs garbage

And, it is formulated.

Related functional material and exercise, before taking out the function, that there is order, after taking out the function, clutter-disorder, in that, in physics and information science, the concept of entropy . In this case, the functions to not order, negentropy ( opposite concept of entropy ) corresponds to, is considered.

When the function extraction,

(1) function is repeated can be extracted ( TV ) or, extraction 1 alone with times ( drug of the fire extinguisher ) or

(2) function is long shelf life ( washing machine hardware ) or, not long shelf life ( raw sashimi ) or

There needs to be borne in mind the distinction, such as.

Consumption, after the environmental adaptation has been achieved, to come down to some extent adaptive level, until a new function will be needed, less likely to occur.

● function preservation and protection

Some consumed functionality, the amount of a scarce and, when thus exhausted taken once, 2 it difficult reproduction and degrees, present ( such as crab catch is reduced corresponds to this ) . In such a case, such as the organism to be a vehicle of its function, it becomes necessary to protection and conservation. The protection and preservation the functions is simply such as food, not limited to those having a specific and physical mass, as landscape, psychological effects ( such as comfort ) including those giving.

● outage

Function and stop, refers in products and services to be provided originally a state where the provision of work is stopped to improve the human environment adaptability. For example, a refrigerator that is no longer able to cool and ice and food in the event of a power failure, or or food gone bad quickly, such as or is no longer able to make the ice pillow, the degree of the human environment adaptation, clearly reduced in comparison to the time of the operation is intended to be, it can be said to be in suspension mode.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

413 function map

● function chain and the society as a whole

Each person, to generate a separate function, to spread it to the entire society, asked to consumption in others, widely distributed throughout society, useful for others to consume the function. By doing so, it is each person that generated and distributed function, the consideration to be served ( in many cases, money as a functional exchange coupon ) and, from here and there of the society, receive. By doing so, in turn, their need for environmental adaptation, ( in society, except for myself, and the like, where the rest of the people to produce ) can get the function . In this regard, the function of each person to produce, ( together, in terms helping the survival of others in society ) it can be seen that complementarity exists.

Of these complementary features more, generating surface ( or consuming face reversed ) , the ties to each other, to each other which are in linkage relationship, one by one stuck Yuki by ( contacted with each other at or bypass ) , one those without a large map is the "functional chain" "functional network". Then, these features chain ( network ) The product-consumption relationship, is a collection of all, a whole society, is considered.

Whole society, ( function generates charge of ) seen as a simple sum of the interaction to be performed each portion mainly, the whole society, as the presence that transcends the parts are clearly captured its movement as a system in the formula in which a is so, not necessarily ( been attracted to the charm that want to capture so, Parsons sociological function advocates, such as the ( social system theorists ) is challenged is not been very successful ) .

● function map

Similar function to each other, the function with each other to chain, collectively on one of the drawing, creating a comprehensive and overall map, directions can be considered that.
Comprehensive and overall map on the function ( temporarily, referred to as a "function map" ) , and to create a simple method, industry ( industry ) map, classifications, in reference to such authorities tissue classification, - each industry with the occupation and administration departments, ( for help to the people of the environmental adaptation ) the function, it is contemplated that those captured by abstraction, may to summarize while to organize.

That make the overall function map is, the contents of the former social organism theory, each part of the organism ( for other parts of the environment adaptation ) or play function is what, from the standpoint of, more abstract lead to be regarded as specific. Biological functions each part something, it is necessary to generalize. For example, nutrition has a positive function ( useful for environmental adaptation ) and the like.

From this point of view, the function of biological each portion was extracted with abstracted form, is applied to society industrial classification, examples of environmental = functional analysis see.

However, such as a conventional social organism theory, a direct analogy with the living body, ( abstract ) Since the function of extraction is not possible, it shall be taken. The maintenance of the whole organism, likened to the whole society maintain perspective should also be denied that. Unlike biological, society as a whole, as long as only results in low levels of environmental adaptation level for if members themselves should not be maintained ( it needs to be dismantled → reorganization ) .

By the way, complaining that "the maintenance of the entire society" is a person in the top in the society ( those who are blessed in the function exchange relationship ) is often referred to in order to protect their own interests. The recite the "maintenance of the whole company organization", such as the president, an avid as the person in a high position, low status of the person is, if there is no merit, such as lifetime employment and seniority-based wages, not to eager to tissue maintenance.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

414 function exchange Function Exchange

1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

[ Abstract ]

human beings in the division of labor state is, in most cases it does not generate their own of want function necessarily own hands. Therefore, the features that are generated by their own hands, passing (it is insufficient) to others, instead, need to get a function missing in his hand that others had been produced is there. Therefore, mutual functions necessary to the (leaders of the generation), seek out from every corner of the society, each other to replace the function with each other that are missing each other, will be self-contained.

In other words, human beings, held out to others the ability to generate their own, get a different function to generate of others in return. In this case, the voucher to other functions in place, sometimes get the money. Also, I get was obtained in exchange for the ability to generate their own, voucher to the function generated by the others, held out to others the money, at the same the exchange generation of others to function. This is the "functional exchange".

1. social division of labor

In Tosetsu, discussed below, necessary for explaining the concept of "functional exchange", the relationship between the social division of labor and human environmental adaptation, described.

It is to be noted that the "function" in the following sentence, pointing things work in general to help the human environment adaptation.

In addition, the following sentence, the point of view, consists of dry outlook starting from individual-based free to move separate and independent and self-supporting each other.

Each one man is directed to environment adapt (to continue to survive). At that time, human beings, are limited, it is not possible to obtain a sufficient environmental adaptation level in survival can be in only one person. Therefore, the environment adaptation level, to a degree sufficient to survive, in order to improve, to try to make a = population - society will Ao to cooperate with each other.

Humans make, as the kind of collective-society, is considered the following two types.

1. Each person performs in a manner mutually related to each other to produce separate types of functions (specialization). Responsible each person separate function generating respective, by linking their function between each other, every single function by specialized more sophisticated human is implemented as a function of unity = each person separate function generating increase the level of environmental adaptation by increasing the quality of the work to be introduced for generation.

2. By doing the same thing to realize (as in the seine lookup) one of the function to perform the same work in multiplayer, everyone do work together = all at once all at the same time, it is put into one of the functions measure the environmental adaptation by increasing the number of people.

1 division of labor ( social division of labor ) and, if seen from the individual point of view, to provide a different function to each person to others each other, or is (are specialization) each person, others performing the work for help conduct environmental adaptation, it can be said to refer to.

From mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity ( E.Durkheim proposition) is, the way of solidarity between people, work together (that the total amount of all perform the same work at the same time. Function is more than an environmental adaptation level There has been indicated that the advances to the division of labor for the purpose) (function exchange. If you were allowed to function differentiate the quality and quantity is likely to exceed the environment adaptation level of each function). In the above classification, 1 is contact to the organic solidarity, 2 is, hits the mechanical solidarity.

Cause of division of labor begins, individual society ( co ) have in common cause to start a life.

Psychology that tries to increase the person's standard of living (= environment adaptation level) is the original cause. Division of labor, by performing human separate work and division of labor in all, an object to rather environment easily adapted to each other. By the progress of the division of labor, the functional differentiation of society, inherent in the human person, environment adaptation improve the standard pressure (EALIP) is, is the driving force, it occurs.

Ability human needs are those extensive food, clothing and shelter. If you try to cover the functional generation of these wide by himself, in the generated function, inadequate, or existing portion of the defect emerges really. As a result, does not increase environmental adaptation levels to a sufficient level, as a result, a situation that can not survive occurs. Therefore, by performing a specialized = function differentiation by division, by increasing the purity of the contents of the generated function, increased environmental adaptation level is achieved.

After all, the division of labor occurs because the person to do so the higher the more each person's environment adaptation capability, and it can be said.

Cause of division of labor, A. and those on the side of the human, B. 2 kinds of those on the side of the environment surrounding a person can be considered.


What is the human side of


Ability difference between the individual


Caused by Variety as each person (differences such as intelligence and physical fitness) to engage in the kind of work that can best demonstrate their abilities, it is more likely to result by each person of environmental adaptation that make up the optimization (society of the social division of labor to) measure.

There are variations in the ability to each individual, there is a forte weak points. For each person, it is engaged in the most favorite work, their own as well as a consumer of the functions they generate, of other people, even if the environment adaptation level, will be increased at the same time.


Limit of ability to do anything personal


Individuals, at the same time than do a number of things, faster is better to concentrate is familiar with a few things, likely to be more sophisticated, accurate and rational output. Therefore is better to concentrate on a small number of things, it is considered more environmentally adaptive capacity is increased.


For one person, in the interaction with the environment, too There are many types of things that must be for life support. And try to do everything alone (self-sufficiency), only obtained output of the low level of functionality for the type of each, the lack of ability to environmental adaptation.

In order to try to increase the environment adaptation level of the individual is to eliminate the state of lack of ability, it is necessary to carry out and division of labor for each type of work. To enable the division of labor, in order to each other to exchange the function, (to share the different types of function generates each other) must be encountered with many of the others (this is, for the cause of social division of labor occurs E. Durkheim description = be said to explain the connection between the increase in social density).


What is on the side of the environment


Environment difference surrounding the individual. Environmental difference ( eg sea environment vs inland environment ) with the optimal product ( function to be generated ) makes a difference in the type of. By between those who are living in different circumstances encounters, those not in each other's ( function ) you realize that you are generating a trade ( capability exchange ) into the relationship ( dried fish vs exchange of wild plants ) that is, division of labor is established.

It can be considered

As a kind of division of labor, it is considered the following two types.

A. System division of labor functions each other, in a complementary-interdependent relationship. When one that division is spoiled by environmental maladaptation, other should have adapted to the environment is also spoiled (stop office functions dependent on hydropower stop → power in society example hydro-only).

B. parallel division output contents are the same, (different but generating method thereof together) similar if the function a plurality prepared corresponds to this. Functionally, prepared choices parallel some other (eg thermal, hydroelectric, nuclear power) to one other is (to ensure the alternative of emergency) to allow alternate even become maladjusted.

( reference ) E.Durkheim has pointed out, the cause of the division of labor (organic solidarity) ( "The Division of Labor in Society")

(1) increase of social volume

(2) changes in various individual is placed environment

(3) an increase of close opportunities with social density = person-to-person

● relationship between a person who is in the division of labor state

Relationship between humans in the division of labor conditions, A) if the system relationship, B) when in the parallel relationship, divided into city.


If there is to systematically and mutual dependency relationship to each other


Is a heterogeneous each other. Interdependence between foreign person, organic solidarity ( E.Durkheim falls on).


Only recognize interface (joint) portions of each other, the other parts are incomprehensible to each other become a black box. In that sense, mutual alienation (lack between consciousness) create the inability of communication.


In the profits recorded relationship with each other. I have a thing without the other party to each other. Located in the supply and demand relationship, each other becomes a source of profit.


Parallel with each other when there is the (conservative-common) Relationship


There is a competitive relationship. And I'll ahead the same thing to each other.


In the co-subjective relationship. The basic part of that you are saying to each other can be commonly understood. Mutual communication is possible. Employment is possible-turned from one to the other, and the like.

( A and the company that supplies an example → power, as there is a company to produce a computer, a power company, a fine thing does not know the computer, in the. Computer company that understands only the surface specifications, if power is a fine thing does not know, such as how can When you do, have an interest if only on whether the power of just enough on your computer to operate is supplied.

In such a case, and technical personnel of the power company, the engineers of the knowledge and ideas of the computer company, are mutually heterogeneous (completely different), difficult to understand that say partner each other. Therefore, the conversation between and technical personnel of the power company, the engineer of the computer company, the only both can understand at the same time, be something that does not take only a very superficial communication.

Here, technology that produces power for the computer company, must not over for operating a computer, are those essential, that the computer company will pay the power bill to the power company, makes profit power company. On the other hand, the computer company of technology, for the power companies, such as to control the production amount of power, is a still essential things, that the power company to buy a personal computer from a computer company, that makes profit the computer company become.

As described above, the power company and the computer company, located in relation to each other perform the supply in response to partner demand to each other, it can be said to be in a relationship with each other profit each other. )

( B and Examples → power companies and gas companies, in similar-common relationship in that they perform energy supply to each other. In this case, for example, in hot-water supply function service to the bath, power companies utilizing power midnight electric trying to sell water heaters, gas company is trying to sell gas water heaters. in this way, the two companies of the sales strategy it can be seen that there is a competitive relationship with each other in terms of energy supply. here, sales of the two companies Man, even if the change jobs to one another opponent of the company, in terms of sales of bath water heating equipment, has gained the same experience, it is possible to almost get the same work.)

J.Habermas due to, speaking in the context of a dualistic understanding of the living world and the system, A is a system, B corresponds to the living world, is considered.

● appearance of experts

When the division of labor to progress, experts (who is responsible for function generation of each of the regions that were differentiated by the advanced division of labor) is, in the wider society, so are at least always one person in each specialty area.

And that expertise was troubled necessary (that dysfunctional state) occurs, is called being explored, such as in the review, towards the whole society, spread in one fell swoop a valid knowledge in environmental adaptation.

However, if the specialization is to progress, the human beings belonging to different professional, to become not through talking to each other, homebound in each of the specialty of the shell, as a result, it becomes difficult out new ideas to break the framework of the existing social , and social change, it is less likely to occur dramatic improvement of the environment adaptation level associated with it.

Thus, different, a combination of disciplines to each other without socialize with one another until now, by increasing the number of people who Kakemochi, making it easier born idea based on a combination of unprecedented, new discoveries on the science and technology - it is possible to connect to the invention, it leads to an improvement of the environment adaptation level.

2. capability exchange

Many functions necessary human environment adaptation not be catering only one person, also by specialized that creator of each function to generate a specific function, effectiveness and performance of each function to be generated there is a need to further improve. Therefore, it becomes necessary capabilities exchange with others.

In the division of labor is advanced state, For each person, (only can cover function itself) self-sufficiency amount of function is slight.

Accordingly, each person, when in the division of labor with each other, (1) many and others, (2) over multiple stages, it is necessary to exchange function.

In other words, human beings in the division of labor state is, in most cases it does not generate their own of want function necessarily own hands. Therefore, the features that are generated by their own hands, passing (it is insufficient) to others, instead, need to get a function missing in his hand that others had been produced is there. Therefore, mutual functions necessary to the (leaders of the generation), seek out from every corner of the society, each other to replace the function with each other that are missing each other, will be self-contained.

In other words, human beings, held out to others the ability to generate their own, get a different function to generate of others in return. In this case, the voucher to other functions in place, sometimes get the money. Also, I get was obtained in exchange for the ability to generate their own, voucher to the function generated by the others, held out to others the money, at the same the exchange generation of others to function. This is the "functional exchange".

Description: The description diagram of the functional exchange

The capability exchange is necessary because, two are considered below.

1. To receive the minutes of the value that they have contributed to environmental adaptation of the rest of society by the division of labor

2. function of other parts (others) is produce of society (it is necessary to sustain life, but can not make by yourself, there is a need to have made to others) the order myself to enjoy

● capability exchange and social system theory

Function replacement, of around a function, creating a mutual dependency of each person that constitute the society, as a result, bring about the integration of society. At the same time, create a differentiation of each person produces function. Function differentiation, differentiate to produce the function of optimal content for each person's ability. In this regard, the capability exchange, results in a system of society, and it can be said. Such a concept is, it can be said and function principle, and is intended to connect the social system theory.

● social system integration

Different function generates charge of social parts together ( e.g., rural and fishing villages ) integration of the different functions with each other meet, it occurs in that the exchange takes place. Function between the encounter ( and the minerals-rich kelp made in the fishing village, many rice of carbohydrates, which are made in rural ) is, at first, by, for example, people with each other with their respective functions substances happen to pass by the same place each other, occur by chance, the resulting function exchange ( fishing village to get rice, rural kelp to get ) the convenience brought about by, to sustain once was born exchange relationship. The duration of the exchange relations, ties of each part to each other of the social system, leading to integration. N.Luhmann says, "system integration" is, and trial-and-error development of capabilities exchange, by its persistence, it can be said to be explained.

● capability exchange, buying and selling and the market

Function, usually, what stage product piled up (a number of) exchange, across to the consumer from the function generator.

Market (town) is a place between the people and the people in the division of labor relationship with each other, the ability exchange and buying and selling is done.

In the market, by calculate the quality and quantity of features that wants and want to put to you and I think / hand provided by their in-situ comparison, a target that the relationship between the optimal exchange and trade is established.

That is, by the free competition enters, aim to supply and demand relationship of each function under the division of labor is optimum adjustment.

Without explicitly organized tissue may be the integration of the whole society. By functional exchange and trade relations in the market, mutual integration among persons with ties by exchange is it.

Stack of mutual coupling to bring a small local function exchange relationship, will lead to the division of labor to all the world level. Mutual coupling, in the market, it brought about on the basis of chance.

● capability exchange and freedom

Opportunities and different function encounter each other, the freedom of a combination of functions each other, be as large as possible is, produce a more appropriate capabilities exchange, enhance people's environmental adaptability level. This can, for example, as seen in Socialist, way to artificially control the encounters and combination of functions each other, by did not produce a very good result, is becoming clear.

● role of the transportation and communication to function exchange

Transportation and communication, to mediate the function exchange between the people and the people (to encounter a certain functions and other functions in the same location), that is, to those who want from the person who produces the function, the bucket brigade of function play a role to perform. Te that sense, responsible for the distribution of functions (each person of the production function to help the spread and distribution to every corner of society with the participation of each person), and it can be said.

Distribution ( a function that a person has been generated, deliver it to the place of those who need it ) is itself, in terms of help for the survival of those who need an intermediary, transportation of function, which is functional.

● addition of function in the course of function distribution ( stacked ) and pricing

In the course of function distribution requires various additional functions. They are generated in order for the feature that came in there, they are added one after another, gradually piled up.

For example, in food production,

 Function ( nutrition ) food is a built-in material ( fruit ) production of ( by farmers )
( food is to the location that is required in the next stage ) transportation of while cold ( by common carrier )
→ collection and processing and packaging ( by processors )
( to the location that is required in the next stage ) transportation ( common carrier )
→ auction in the market ( market participants )
( to the consumption areas ) transportation and cold ( common carrier )
→ display and retail ( retailer )
( coming doing using, for example, transportation) Function consumer ( people there is a demand to want to eat the fruit )

Follow the process, such as, each skilled in the art ( function generates the person in charge ) is, for the functional material that has been carried on there, is generates a new function that is required on the spot, take a newly added, final to the original to function consumer, the sum of the piled up function is passed, it comes to.

Consumers, the sum of the features that have been piled up over in his hand, and finally use at a time ( for consumption ) . At that moment, he is, each function ( food production, transportation, display ..) is at once the benefit of.

Required functionality is generated sequentially, the process applied, the price attached to each function.
Price (1) the cost taken to function generation ( costs ) , (2) depending on the degree avail of others, attached as consideration should be paid by others.
Price, function substance is, each time over the next function providers, will be added. And the total, final consumers pay.

● function provides a feedback

Function creator, function provides destination (customer) is directed to satisfaction in their own provide the function. I'm happy when it is satisfied (evoke the pleasure). Their function generating capacity was observed (competence, the height of the environmental adaptation level with the ability to provide), then directed to acquire a wider supply destination (customer), improvement of its possible functions provide a way It leads to. To that end, the information (feedback) about what was greeted in providing destination functions your provided with a what kind of evaluation, it comes to want to know constantly. The presence of feedback, to contribute to improve the quality of features that circulates in the society.

● What are the similarities, differences with the existing exchange theory of sociology?

GCHomans , PMBrau existing exchange theory that has been proposed by et al., Is a way of thinking to see the exchange relationship of remuneration with others human behavior, there is, lacks the concept of exchange of "function". Alternatively, they lack awareness of the environment (interaction with the environment, adaptation to the environment, the purpose of the exchange is in the order of mutual environmental adaptation, etc.).

A proposition about the features exchange of function principle, proposition of the existing exchange theory ( GCHomans and write following the due to), is as follows.

"Human beings, when the generation and exchange of features that contribute to the environment adaptation of others, receive more rewards from others (providing they have to not function, or such as the currency of the offer). He is more to help others of environmental adaptation ( development of generation-exchange conditions of the function ) to try. "

● money and capability exchange, buying and selling

Money is, the ability to generate their own, to others, sell in exchange for consideration ( taken back Have ) , the other function that I do not have, to get in exchange for consideration from others ( by purchasing ) at the time, measuring the mass of the compensation measure to use as, any article, information having a common value between the self and others etc ... is.

The function exchange and trade with others, money is needed. Why money is required, in division of labor ( generated ) it is for causing compatibility between the value of each function, because essential to the smooth distribution function, is considered.

The emergence of money, is inseparable from the development of capabilities exchange and division of labor.

That there are exchanges of money, division of labor (systematization) is evidence that is occurring.

By using as the media capability exchange money, among people money is in circulation, social system which is based on division of labor is automatically constructed. This indicates that the money has the power to put together a society to one of the system by the division of labor chain by the exchange relationship of money occurs.

Obtaining money, that is, usually, participating in division of labor system ( helping others by), it is evidence that serves generation for environmental adaptation of others.

Do not know someone ( unspecified, do not know how many ) as the consideration that contributed to environmental adaptation of others, money ( wages ) some by = others ( contents unspecified ) to ensure that the function provided by the obtained coupon , resulting in a right to receive. To give up this right, it is a volunteer.

Money is largely of individuals who make use of it, the width of the environment adaptation. The use of the money, with any kind of hope of function at any time will be able to exchange, eliminating the time and type constraints of function selection and consumption.

Estimates of the value of the function is performed by cost accounting.

Important function ( others Kaware not take ) enough to carry out, is likely to enter the hand thing of value, such as money. And lack of importance × supply amount of the functional, proportional to the price.

What the price is attached is, naturally, with everyone some sort function, it can be said that useful for environmental adaptation. If this is not the case, equivalent to fraud, capability exchange is not performed correctly ( and therefore, function to inhibit want people of environmental adaptation ) will be treated as a crime to bring the situation. The exception, as the drug trade, though it is harmful to the environment adaptation, there is a case in which a high price attached.

Price fluctuations, supply and demand balance of the increase / decrease × function of function, determined by the.

Each person is responsible for function, or disabled or enabled by a change in the environment, or not or there is competitive. Price attached to function, it can be said to be proportional to the effectiveness of the current with the function. When effectiveness is whether is hard to predict change.

That store the money (for savings), the acquisition of the functions of the others, nothing more than store (their own and the functions of the voucher and the partner with the) exchange potential, the ability.

An abnormality of the division of labor system, it is possible to know and price in the market, by the movement of the currency market.

Currency amount, it is ideally equivalent to fulfill been Functionality (in value) total. Yardstick to measure the value of the function is the price of its function.

Money is in the body, breathing of each cell, the same role as the oxygen necessary for the survival, in society, has for each individual. If you do not come money in his place, and does not turn money, people of that part of the society will not be able to live, not live. So that the oxygen is around all over the inside of the living body, it is 'What goes around comes around'.

● capability exchange between humans and other organisms

Capability exchange is not limited to human beings. In between the other organisms, each other, each other to exchange a valid function for the opponent, the phenomenon is often seen that. For example, a plant of rice, the relationship between human beings, corresponds to this. Rice, humans, such as carbohydrates, human nutrients necessary for the survival ( function ) give the rich. Human beings, in return, to cultivate the land, and raised planting a lot of rice, such as by the diligently weeding and pest control, is cooperating with their survival. These, among organisms ( valid survival ) interact, interchange bidirectional functions, in the conventional ecology, considered equivalent to the "symbiotic".

● of communication and information concepts and capabilities exchange and functional line

Communication, 2 between the person, whereas the information held by the shows the process of being copied to the other. In other words, communication, represents the interaction and exchange occurs process of information.

Here, information, teach a clue to the fact that it is action that will help the environment adaptation In this way ( to suggest ) are those, itself, will benefit the environment adaptation, to to survive the individual = life system help have a "function". For example, residents for information that the tsunami warning through the disaster prevention radio of local authorities, for the residents, that the danger of life is imminent by the tsunami, in order to avoid death, to take action to evacuate to higher ground , teach. In this case, the information 1) currently, what becomes of the environment surrounding the receiver of information, to indicate the status ( presentation of environmental conditions ) , and, 2) information recipient, is adapted to the current state of the environment the, whether or if you take any action, to teach ( the teachings of the adaptation means ) consists of, any, help the recipient of environmental adaptation of information, it can be said that a "functional".

Therefore, the fact that the communication as exchange of information to occur, between the individual, it means that what is happening is exchange-flexibility of "function", that is, nothing more than "functional exchange" is happening.

The communication, shows the means of goals to the other, "instrumental (instrumental) and ones" icebreaker is itself object to perform communication such as, "Konsamatori (consummatory) If there is a thing" It is. Tagui of the tsunami warning is, the means of environmental adaptation, in terms of teaching to the recipient, it can be said that the "instrumental".

Itself to take the opponent and communication are self-purpose of, in the Konsamatori communication, by taking the communication, want to improve the integrity and interdisciplinary sense of the recipient of the information, the message that I want to be more intimate ( information ) , and the recipient it means that sent against. In this case, to become intimate with each other, more interchange = capability exchange faceted and smooth function is enabled ( which indicates that the connection of the communication line with the other, will be more thicker sure ) . To strangers, also by suddenly hard to ask, easy to ask that it is close friends with each other, is that often the case that. Interchange of function ( exchange ) an increase in the opportunity of, the functions necessary for your environment adaptation, is that likely to put in a more hands from the other party, itself, as seen in ecological, to the fact that functional Become.

For these reasons, Konsamatori communication is, by itself, does not come as a "functional exchange" to exchange function, by which become more intimate with the partner, the line for exchanging the functions of the mating, thicker, in that you are sure, it can be said that has a function to promote the "functional exchange" the act itself between individuals.

Friends, family relationships and, community ( Gemeinschaft, community ) communication seen in is based on frank each other, anything Hanashiaeru each other relationship to each other. That point, the line that exchanges of function ( function line ) is thicker, has led to the constant, it is considered difficult to cut. On the other hand, in the communication seen in business Gesellschaft relationship, such as companies and authorities, line the path of the function, or thin, the contract will be expired After completion, but a lack of homeostasis, are considered.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

415 function competition

The source of the same function, if there is more than one, sources with each other, the function of his place has been generated, in an attempt to spread a lot than elsewhere, it comes to competition. Expand market share competition of the function creator, boils down, as organisms, their generated alter ego ( copy of itself ) , and want to spread to the maximum ( want to spread ) are based on the biological desire , it can be said that. This, the functions of his generation, more broadly, is what biological desire to want to spread many, as a result, become the driving force for supplying a sufficient function in society as a whole.

Competition, 1A) other and the same function, and if you try to provide at a lower than other prices, 1B) If the features that bring high environmental adaptation level than the other, and to provide other and the same price, 2) other than the wide range of peripheral also ( addition ) and if you try to provide a function, occur in combination.

In the feature race, always the ones compared to high functionality and other sources, the cost (of money corresponding buy function) dont performance well not issued.
Such a competition is, as a result, function excess ( over-specification ) likely to lead to.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

421 roles and functions

What is the role ? Of where the individual plays, has been pre-split, to generate a partial function, activities of the bundle ( group ) is.

Function of generating execution activities, or classification and division of each individual Why happen ? Can be in charge of one person, there is a limit to the quality and quantity of the function to be generated. Therefore, to generate and share the function group in each person. Division of function group ( subdivided ) , the different functions can be each other relative to each other, human settlement network ( function network ) to form a.

Individuals to play a role is thus formed, the generation and maintenance of a portion of the functions of the network is that the question person is responsible.

Role is how occur or ? When to share the generation of functional groups in each person, the same ( similar ) by bundling the type of function, who was in charge of the same person, raise the efficiency of learning, environmental adaptation level more it goes up. This is the role differentiation ( specialization ) as is captured.

The function generating activities of the individual, when taken as a role, point of view is in the whole society - organization, emphasis is placed on the positioning of in that. The independence, self-sufficiency of the built-in part society in the whole how to ensure ? The kind of want to their own generation function, to be able to decide from there to prepare a plurality of choices, type selection of to have freedom.

● changes in the role that individual is responsible

In society, the role differentiation of where each person is to perform, brought about by the fragmented, specialized functions that each person generates.
In a state where the function is subdivided, he or perform any type of function generation ( or play which role ) for, there is a possibility that various changes.

For even the work of his is now concerning function not generated, the reasons listed below, there is a possibility that take future.
insufficient supply of features that others have generated can not be predicted how happen in the future ( do not know ) from.

2) types of now generate the function that you are is, becomes not a future effective ( its role, become socially unnecessary ) , to produce another new type of function ( an effective role in environmental adaptation the performing ) because need to come out.

1) In the case of, someone who already has the business to perform a certain function generation, to meet such a disaster, when you fell into a deficiency state in the mass both sides of the function generated, on behalf of the position of the person in question, someone else person, so that the help function sufficiency. Human beings, someone others at any time so as to be able to substitute the function generating activities that are currently performed, in addition to the role to get the original, it is necessary to polish the function generating capacity. These things, functions provides stable by each person ( and replacement ) is enough sometimes meaning on performed for the entire community.

2) For each person, meet the vicissitudes of the environment surrounding the periphery, while changing the type of product to function properly, always ( constantly ) to give consideration to a sufficient function generation and distribution, the functionality required in order to continue to live in order to be able Tsuzukeruru put in enough hands, there is a meaning.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

431 social generation and function

Why society can? From the perspective of dry function principle, individuals are to make it easier to protect more of his own life, helping each other, creating a society for the purpose of mutual cooperation, ie, individuals, for their own environment adaptation level improvement , create a society for the purpose of mutually exchanging each other themselves of the generated function with others, it comes to. Society as a whole, individual function fulfillment (generation of function, exchange, consumption) regarded as a chain of. Society & cooperation is done in order to increase the individual's environment fitness. In that regard, environmental adaptation improve the standard pressure inherent in the individual (EALIP) is, to individuals, to create a society, are urging, and it can be said.

RKMerton was proposed by, the concept of "positive function and reverse function", and re-captured by the dry, is a positive function, be useful to each person's life support, reverse function, which threaten the individual's life support, not directly related to the maintenance of the entire society. Individuals, as long as the help to the person's environment adaptation, mingle with society.

Individuals, that belongs to society their own does not contribute to environmental adaptation (has caused the malfunction, or did not enter into they want features hand, there is a failure to put in hand) if at any time they leave or break the association with the society, society by adding the hands of their own change, more recreate a new society that is suitable to the environment adaptation (re-enter to the pressure by the society) can be.

A society is not functional for me ( do not lend themselves to the environment adaptation ) time, individuals have the freedom to withdraw from the society. That point, conventional sociological function principle (social system theory) is, do not think the withdrawal of members ( regarded as embracing to the entire society at any time ) .

Function is not is the purpose of the society maintained. Society, in order to maintain itself, does not exist. Some for personal environment adaptation. For individuals, it is most important to survive in an environment that vicissitudes every day as a biological.

If in order to respond to changes in the environment, and to temporarily stop the social system that has become useless to the existing environment adaptation, may be creating a new system. To stop / regenerate the social system is based on the individual's independence.

In short, society, merely sharing tool that each individual has been developed in order to environmental adaptation, not only a tool. Individual is a master, society is of a servant.

● the relationship between the individual and society

In conventional wet sociological function principle, function is regarded as useful for maintaining social systems and organizations. That point, per focus throughout society, individuals are regarded as being dependent from the first social (gear). Individuals by seeing how to be a part of society, appearance of the individuals that make up the society, a situation that becomes invisible dissolved in the "whole society" occurs.

To avoid this, in the dry functional principles, rather than social systems (to provide microscopic viewpoint to the function principle) individuals focus. To the extent that help individuals of environmental adaptation, it looks like that requires a society and organizations. Human beings and as long as necessary to their own environment adaptation, performed a social and collective participation.

● Hobbs problem

In the conventional sociology, T.Parsons as has been raised, the previous natural state political state is generated, Hobbes regarded as such as seen in the theory of, is a state of war against the thousands of million people, When how, causing it to stop the struggle between individuals, able to produce either a stable order of the social system, is a problem that, as things to be solved, was present.

T.Parsons is, for the above problem,

(1) the value system that are common to people, to be internalized in each person's personality
the value system, in the social system, to be institutionalized

That, was regarded as a method of resolution.

In view of the dry function principle, this and is, regarded as a solution of a different way problem. That is,

(1) differences that exist between individuals, features, the existence of individuality, recognized to each person
on the basis of different personalities, each other are different ( to exhibit better their characteristics and individuality ) to produce a functional , to allow each other to exchange

At this point, mutual dependencies born around the function between the individual, the struggle is no longer considered to.

● society as a whole and the individual society

Each person is, the functions that are each independently carried out, taken as a fragment, each of the function with each other, the whole - the sum of each puzzle that garnish Damn for each partial-place to each other applies to complementary is, "the entire society." it is.

And social place where people belong to the individual, "society as a whole" is not the same. No AC disconnected from each other 2 as had one society, the whole society, the 2 is intended to capture contains both one. On the other hand, the people of the place that belongs to the individual society (1 social image that can be person is overlooking ) and is, for the people, between myself, the exchange in terms of generation, exchange, and consumption of function a collection of others ( assembly ) is. For members of one community, AC ( socially ) without the other society, but are included in the "society", in the "individual society" it is not included.

1 person 1 to person, there is no force that overlooks the whole society. Humans are, in some way, the other with mutual exchanges only, can not be recognized as a society of human unity. In this case, for the each person, "individual society" is, have the same meaning as "the entire society."

● organization integration and environmental adaptation

And integrate the organization, the following reasons are environmental adaptive.
Function of generating the required number of contacts to be taken Heraseru
from overlapping functions of eliminating same function generation generation is performed apart eliminate be performed apart at separate, under constant lead those who perform becomes more environmentally adaptive

Meanwhile, in the following points, leading to non-adaptation to the environment.
When integrated the question tissue resulting in destroyed, other serve alternative functions tissue can no longer exist.

● national and function control

Nation, the way of production, exchange, and consumption of functions, as people environmental adaptation level is improved, to so as to be maintained in a good condition ( optimization line generation and exchange and consumption functions as crack ) , monitoring is a mechanism to control. In this regard, the State is required to secure the people of environmental adaptation level in a high state, it is responsible for managing the social norms, and it can be said. To centralize chain of command for performing the optimization, nation, there is only one.

● social collapse

The society of collapse, and cut off ties of generation, exchange, and consumption of the features that had worked effectively until now, each person is, become a person disjointed state, it is to fall into a state of isolation Muen. In other words, each person is, only the power of one person myself, needed to environment adaptation, is that the conditions that it must generate a minimum of function. Collapse state of society, likely to occur the more backward society, but also in the advanced society, earthquake, etc., partially, temporarily it is seen that there is.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

432 social structure and function

Human, environmental adaptation state (a state in which the environment adaptation level is maintaining a more constant) is followed by much, I hope that stability is brought to life (for example, such as the desire to stabilize and subsequently the job you are with your current ).

That each is directed to stable efficacy (effective levels) and function between linkage of functions of distributing (interchange relation, etc.), it leads to the generation of the social structure.

From the above viewpoint, social structure, from the viewpoint of dry-functional principles of personal center refers to a change hardly stabilized portions of the functional generator or exchanged consumption relationship between people, it can be regarded as.

● changes in the social structure

Social structure, but the current environment adaptive (positive functional), there is no guarantee that continue to work positive functionally the future. For adaptation to a new environment, it is necessary to reorganize the association, leading to structural variations. Function, which is considered the current environment adaptive there is no guarantee a permanent environmental adaptively.

For example, it may be considered the relationship between the functions and petroleum depletion of gasoline vehicles. Currently, gasoline vehicles has been effectively used as the primary means for the geographic movement, once oil is depleted, it becomes impossible to use, thus turned into an invalid scrap only. As it is, the need for new features inventions and discoveries to ensure further environmental adaptation (e.g., automobile development moving nuclear) becomes under.

Such a breakthrough towards the discovery of features that bring a better environment adaptation, the result was solidified with only values ​​about the existing environment adaptation, break the existing social structure, to the generation of a new structure lead (e.g., corrupted the structure of oil consumption society, such as nuclear community to newly generated) that the made.

● up and down the differentiation of optimization and social structure of the function

Each person functions with each other to generate, exchange, and consumption, there is a need to be optimized for the environment adaptation. For that purpose, in addition to the parties of the generation, exchange, and consumption, and monitor the status of their generation, exchange, and consumption from the top, those with the function of control it comes newly becomes necessary.

People, and party functions generate, exchange, and consumption, gradually differentiate into two types of monitoring and control's function distribution state itself stable structure (upper control structure vs make lower distribution structure).

Description: The upper and lower differentiation of social structure

Itself to successful various functions distribution (optimized) as is true as one of important functions.

Upper control structure, the lower distribution structure, as environmental adaptation level increases more, to optimize adjustment of the function distribution. Lower distribution structure, by feeding back the result of adjustment carried out in cooperation as a better adjustment.

Social way, when the upper control structure is strong, management (social) principle, if the lower distribution structure is strong is considered to be a liberal.

Send existing upper control structure is, when you fail to optimize the function distribution (became mismanagement state), lower distribution structure is to stop the commission to the upper control structure, and re-commissioned again new personnel It will be.

Function generation and exchange optimization, but it is also possible to some extent in the lower distribution structure itself, to the upper control structures to target the optimized society, lower distribution structure is relevant to their it may be often stay in local optimization. However, even if the optimization remains locally, by sequentially linked with the scope of the optimization of them overlap in portions to each other, ultimately, society is optimized without taken out of the upper control structure it not impossible, and can also be considered.

The position relationship between the upper control structure and a lower distribution structure,

(1) it is higher in the upper control structure, the lower the lower distribution structure (bottom governed top). For example, in Japan, even the government is referred to as "you up" (people who are in a position above their own), it can be said to be related to this thing.

Position differentiation within the same upper control structure is as follows.

(2A) functions as high as many quality and quantity for centrally less when low. In other words, as high as the place where a lot of authority and budget, the lower the place is not the case.

(2B) as function abstract, will be in the vicinity center, high specific enough, it will be in the vicinity site decreases. For example, in the Japanese government, Director General of the more rough abstract ministry is business content, than the manager of a more specific and detailed local branch offices are business content, will be at the more central, high status.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

433 Social Change and functionality - from the point of view of the dry function principle -

In the dry function principle, and social change, with the aim of improvement of better environmental adaptation level people, currently exists, is as it does not only provide inadequate environment adaptation level, to break down the social mechanisms, more It occurs to try to make a society resulting environmental adaptation state levels that can be a new satisfactory mechanism, represents the dynamic changes in society.

● social balance

Social equilibrium refers to the elements that constitute the population and society as a whole, in a quiescent or steady state. It kept constant and stabilize exchange relationship function between ( division of labor transient stability ) , it is kept constant and out of each person's features, generation of structure, manifested such.

Social equilibrium, in biology, based on the homeostasis of the idea. The homeostasis, physiological conditions of the organism, for example human body temperature and blood state, even changing conditions surrounding the body likened occurs, refers to keep a constant standard state. When this is applied to the concept of dry function principle, social homeostasis ( social balance ) , people of environmental adaptation levels, refers to the subsequent state which falls beyond the allowable range.

People, the environment adaptation state of their own, prima facie satisfactory, retain in a comfortable state, to no, an attempt to stabilize. Environmental adaptation level is, if you fell from there, the original better, tends to return to the adaptive level within the range that people will allow. This is considered a mechanism of social equilibrium.

● balance out fluctuations checks and balances within the fluctuation

In homeostasis of a living body, for example, as a work to be adjusted constant body temperature, while repeating variation within a certain range, it attempts to return more environmentally adaptive state of the original. Also in society, while the law is operated continuously in society, as the course of repeated revisions, within a certain allowable fluctuation range, the movement to repeat the variation observed. This social equilibrium, within itself ( within a certain range ) illustrates that the enclosing social change. And social change, and social equilibrium, the concept incompatible with each other, never.

Only support the foot, balance is a toy that can take, "balancing toy" ( balance doll, Balancing Toy) in, run-out of up, down, left, or right direction when shook his body and arms ( change ) is, if fixed within, Returning to the original equilibrium state, if they change is equal to or greater than a predetermined, and turned over will ( collapse the balance ) .

The principle of the toy, when considered in fitting the social equilibrium and social change, is as follows. In width within a certain, when repeating the change of come and go, this is, in the long run, with a focus on equilibrium state, is a social change that can return to the equilibrium state, "the balance within the change" It can be called any time a. On the other hand, in the change it is constant or more, it is not possible to return to the previous equilibrium state, in other words, the balance is lost, there is a fundamental upheaval, which can be referred to even as "balance out fluctuations" .

● various types and the cause of social change

People, the degree of the environment adaptation, too low, when in a state that can not be very happy, to break this state, even a little, high, survived easily, an attempt is made to obtain the degree of environmental adaptation. In this state, people, breaking the equilibrium state that does not result in only low levels of life actively, as trying to get the life of the higher level, in the process, social change occurs.

However, the current equilibrium state is overcome only with the case of low people of the environment adaptation level, not necessarily say. Constantly, and more to improve the environment adaptation level than it is now, desire to have a more comfortable life is one that many people have, do, lye without desire and pressure on the environment adaptation improve the standard ( environment adaptation improve the standard pressure = EALIP) is, of current, of one way comfortable should, to discard the equilibrium state, the movement of people to be aim at the life of a better level ( social change ) becomes the driving force of. Improvement of environmental adaptation level ( more survived easy to achieve the standard of living ) is what is a state in which the ecological are desirable, because of its realization, social equilibrium, it is to some extent, a comfortable life even those that promise, as long felt a lack for a better environment adaptation, it may be discarded.

For example, function development competition between companies ( for example, of a mobile phone function improved competition ) violently, if the motive of the environment adaptation level improvement unlimited, even in the current is likened environment adaptation state, continue, not ever high level of environmental adaptation level ( for example, a mobile phone of high-speed data communication support, etc. ) in search of, social change continues, social equilibrium state is not visited. In this case, it goes up once at a high level, conventional, a mechanism that has been considered sufficient environment adaptive is, unbearable inconvenient, or feel. In this case, the degree of environmental adaptation ( level ) is happening is raise the level to evaluate itself, and it can be said.

In short, the social change, as "level-deficient" that occurs because there is too low the original environment adaptation level, and occurs in spite of the adequate environment adaptation level is present "level sufficient type" 2 that there are ways It can be seen.

Came far described, various variations of, a point of view about the cause of the change, which was captured by limited in one of the society, called a change "stand-alone".

Apart from these, to the values shown and people of other society, the degree of environmental adaptation, such as living standards, there is a gap ( towards the people of the other community, are able to live at a much higher environmental adaptation level ) when I especially noticed, themselves also better environmental adaptation level ( level improvement of ) seeking, get out the balance or stagnant state of the current situation ( to break it ) and. These ( and my belongs society, with other communities around ) social comparison, lead to social change.

Variation of this type, because the comparison with other society occurs in the cause, called a "comparison type" change.

One of the social change also, people, in terms that occur in an attempt to improve the environment adaptation level of their own are common, environmental adaptation improve the standard pressure (EALIP) can be considered is, it is working in the underlying, and.

However, motivated, even it aims upward, as a result is not necessarily, not necessarily varies in a direction to increase the environmental adaptation level, conversely, the environmental adaptation level varies in a direction to lower than ever Sometimes.

For example, a country, if you lost the war of territorial expansion, rather, to the partner countries, are deprived of their territory, it narrowed the life range, as a result, environmental adaptation level is lowered. In this case, the motive, extends their territory, in the form of expanding the life range, than was trying to improve the environmental adaptation level, results, motivation ( = rise ) which conflicts with ( = reduction ) It has become.

Alternatively, people who suffer from the tyranny of dictatorship, seeking liberation from tyranny, was revolutionized, revolutionary forces, from conflict of interest, and division, plunged into civil war with each other, from the chaos of war, rather, life is painful, that it will happen. Again, contrary to the motivation of obtaining the environmental adaptation levels increased in the form of release from the oppression, has led to the result that reduction of environmental adaptation levels by social chaos civil war caused.

Therefore, social change, although seen as based on the pressure that attempts to increase the environmental adaptation level, the change results in an increase in environmental adaptation level, the "level elevation" Conversely, environmental adaptation level results in a reduction of, in the "level lowering type", divided, and it can be said.

Social change further as the economic fluctuations, waves rise and lowering of the environmental adaptation levels, as a "cyclical" coming alternately, modernization and social ( reversed ) as seen in the greenhouse to, environmental adaptation levels, unilaterally, such as going to rise and decline, divided into as a "one-way".

● maintenance-oriented and innovation-oriented

In the society of reality, trying to maintain a comfortable status quo and "maintenance oriented", there is a reasonably comfortable, but to break the status quo, which was stagnant, new change ( further rise in the environment adaptation level ) attempts to find the of the "innovation-oriented", seen as relentless offense and defense exists.

People, degree of environmental adaptation, if the satisfactory level, the state is stable wishes to continue to be considered ( directed maintenance of equilibrium ) . Level of environmental adaptation is, prima facie, if within the allowable range of people, even if there is some dissatisfaction, that the state continues, not in outright opposition, to ratify the status quo. To try to maintain a balance in society, in the current state of society who are their own now, are satisfied to some extent, it is the human person. This is the source of "maintenance oriented".

On the other hand, the human, there when the equilibrium state continues for a long time, Even if it is to some extent comfortable, come psychological tired of the state, there is a tendency for change. Alternatively, the defunct aspirations tiring was built in humans ( which is environmental adaptation levels increased pressure = EALIP based on ) is to overcome the status quo that equilibrium constantly, thereby aim at more upper level life. These, psychological saturation and environmental adaptation improve the standard pressure = EALIP becomes a source of "innovation-oriented".

In human society, roughly, are the people who already in the environment adaptation state, and those who do not is.
Conservative people, a people who want to maintain the status quo that has already been environment adaptation, on the other hand, innovative people is, at present, not yet reached the level satisfactory environmental adaptation level is too low, grievances is the people.

In business, management's side is to support the Conservative Party, labor's side is to support the innovation political parties, between them, environmental adaptation level surface ( survive ease of to get the necessary functions to ) is considered to be due to difference there is in the ( blessed is more of management's side ) .

Conservative people, by social change, and environment level of innovative others go up, because your environment adaptation level falls relatively, to try to prevent hated it. It is, Restoration, leading to the anti-revolutionary movement.

The survival of society and organizations ( maintenance ) of is required, people,
was already familiar, it wants to maintain some degree comfortable state.
caused by being thrown out of the existing society and organizations, you can adapt to new changes in the environment around them, it is anxiety.
It is the case.

● differences between the traditional social system theory

T.Parsons the social system theory, in the social system, social control and socialization is assumed to be the mechanism that produces the status quo. Social control, as the current social state is protected, captured and be such as sanctions against those who do not observe, socialization is, the current state of the society, to the young-young next-generation, education by, it is seen as bringing as it is handed down. Both the forcing, and seeks to maintain the current state, with the human, autonomy, spontaneity is ignored.

In the dry function principle, unlike this, the people who make up the society, the environment adaptation level to satisfy, at the time of living in the society, that you have obtained, the status quo of the mechanism of the society produce ( people, without being forced to someone, voluntarily, choose the status quo ) think that.

Next, conventional social systems theory, the reason is not able to explain social change,
(1) T.Parsons
for social system model is an emphasis on integration and stability of the system "equilibrium model" variation is, abnormal ones, are treated as pathological.
(2) T.Parsons
According to, the social change, and the change of social system itself are distinguished, it is that the variation of the internal systems, are envisioned as unidirectional process leading to rebalancing the equilibrium , disturbance factors of the balance, i.e., factors of variation is considered as a deviant behavior. By works is variable factors deviant behavior be constantly social control mechanism, eventually be eliminated, again towards equilibrium, to be described. In such variation theory, predictive and variations in the source of variation, and further, description of the variation of society itself is impossible.
It is things like.

In the dry function principle, environmental adaptation first, in the process, it is taken in order that both social equilibrium and (balance) and its discarding occurs.
As in the prior art social system theory, equilibrium maintenance is not necessarily prioritized. As in the online system updates and the office of the new models replace the personal computer of the bank, (even without tampering in the system all the way new, it has reached a sufficient level to environmental adaptation of one way) that equilibrium is maintained even in regardless, better environmental adaptation level ( such as improvement of competitiveness ) in order to aim a positively, be waste its equilibrium takes place.

In view of the dry function principle, conventional T.Parsons Unlike the sociological function principle of et al., Balance maintenance is not the ultimate goal of society. Adapted individuals belonging to the society to the environment, to survive is the ultimate goal. Equilibrium without help better environment adaptation individuals, it is necessary to waste.

[ example of analysis of social change ] Meiji Restoration of Japan

In the history of Japan, "Meiji Restoration" is, Yuhan of Satcho Doi is, the conventional 200 defeat followed by Edo shogunate system has been over-year, the newly established centralized system by the new Meiji government, in terms of, conventional overturned the social system from the root, it can be said to be a balance out fluctuations.

Cause of the Meiji Restoration,


Suppression of environmental adaptation level decrease

If you leave it to stand the Japanese society, Western and vassal-colonization of powers, subject to exploitation, only not be obtained low life level = environment adaptation level. So, I hit the fast hands as possible, it is necessary to avoid the colonization.


The efficiency of environmental adaptation level improvement

Western culture and behavior of powers, has advanced more than that of the Japanese culture up to now, Ukeirere if, higher environmental adaptation level ( life level ) bring. So, as soon as possible, create a system to accept efficiently a more Western culture ( to realize the "Civilization" ) there is a need.

Such as, inherent in the mind of the leaders who played a Japanese social change at that time, environmental adaptation improve the standard pressure (EALIP) can be viewed as is Tashi Mora.

● The overall balance and the local balance

The balance of society, society as a whole is balanced (part dependent on the total) of Not is capable view regarded as a chain of local equilibrium (each part, for example, local-communications community to balanced autonomously) .

Each individual is not to function for the entire social system (even if the results to contribute to the society as a whole, individuals do not have the ability to hand out, do not try to Kubaro the eye until there = each of the information processing ability, physical strength etc .. of due to limitations). Individuals be only to cover the (charge may) range that can be their involvement, each individual utilizing local systems to each other to the extent that they can be utilized. So it worked What are those should be called even a "local functions".

For example, in the central government of Japan, the administrative is vertically divided, in the tissue inside, but is "no a station-saving", which, because each is visible range in the tissue is limited it is considered a phenomenon that occurs. In that sense, the local equilibrium, it can be said that it is the concept also applies to the pyramid-type organization (bureaucracy).

In short, for human beings, it is impossible to overlook the whole society at once, each time is better stack of local decision go well, it comes to.

● modernization of society ( reform, self-organization )

Modernization of society, make better environmental adaptation, i.e., with respect to environmental changes, in order to lead a life that provides the corresponding function is stable to higher levels, human beings of society but it refers to the process that is brainstorm the force, will create a no level of functionality to until now.

Reform, in order to increase the individual's environment fitness that make up the society, to change the various existing social relationships such as norms communications network ( unlike the revolution, not to totally destroyed ) , new attempt to re-configuration of the level ( causing fluctuations in the range of equilibrium, causing equilibrium fluctuation ) is regarded as. Similarly revolution, people (the required function is not available for members) society from scratch again dysfunction caused the ( cause balance out variations that completely destroy the balance ) , a new function sufficiency state It is viewed as an attempt we may clarify.

The self-organization, as seen from the individual's point of view, by each person to voluntarily in order to increase the level of environmental adaptation, or new invention and improve their function, the more smoothly the function exchange, function production and to raise the level of the exchange, and it can be said.

● inventions and discoveries and social change

The discovery of the new features, the invention is, (can not control is artificially) with a chance. It corresponds to a mutation of the gene.
All there is artificially related attempt to control and was a socialist planned economy of the collapse of the.
The discovery of the new features, the invention is a driving force for environmental adaptability improvement. Alternatively, to waste the balance of equilibrium already society.

● social equilibrium, other definitions

Definition of social equilibrium, from the standpoint of non-homeostasis,

1. division of labor to members each other society (depending on their functions) satisfactory enough various functions that the environmental adaptation state (most) effectively works, each person's survival sufficiently (most) guaranteed state are
function of each member that division of labor is provided by the state began to spread to members of every corner of the social network
the state to which the balance of functions that constitute a part part of the social division of labor Japan Does the unbalanced international is in the balance related to industrial countries Engineering> agriculture domestic
there is no that one balance is made (that the input and output functions are Ika with a unilaterally profits to the other )State

It is taken as such.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

511 social norms ( order, law ) and function

Code (Act) are those which reflect the fundamental value (environmental adaptation, ensuring the effectiveness of the function) underlying. Because work functions sufficiently, reverse function ( Merton to prevent), is required.

Why order and norms is produced ?

(1) the behavior of people ( for environmental adaptation ) while acting to maximize the ability to immobilize. As everyone to take action to create a high function, or, so as to avoid each other action to reduce the environmental adaptation level, align the behavior of people. By doing so, it becomes easy to more environmentally adapted ( likely to sustain life ) .

Code, is necessary in order to make life for people to fulfill the functions. For the improvement and stability of the environment adaptation level, the norm is made. By observing, environmental adaptation of a high level is guaranteed. Code is between multiplayer, for performing better environmental adaptation, ( function generation-consumption ) required for action adjustment.

(2) everyone simultaneously to the movement within a certain range ( signal waiting, etc. ) . Align all of the movement, arrange. By enabling the uneven fit on the interface between people, the generation-consumption of the function, and more effective.

For example, lunch in the assembly and cafeteria at the factory, time is better of all at once the efficiency goes up ( is cheaper ) . Heraseru the function consumption becomes invalid.

Order and codes are scrutinized constantly whether useful for environmental adaptation, knowing invalid-toxic, it is necessary to walk the developing initialization and reconstruction.

Code ( Act ) , where the environmental change, can lose its positive function of.
The Code of Conduct, it is a positive functional for some people, but for the majority of other people, the ones that become an obstacle for the environment adaptation ( the so-called bad law ) are also included. In this case, an attempt to restore the environment adaptation level, people, move in the direction that Haisuru the Code. Motivation to try to these recovery and increase the level of environmental adaptation, lead to social change.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

512 function principle and the law

2009.11 Iwao Otsuka

■ functional principle legislation, law-abiding

, not because it is illegal to bad, think because it is the reverse function that it's bad.
The idea that bad because it is illegal, dictator (Hitler) or using dictatorship population (central government of Japan) decided the thing, becomes the fact that all correct.

Threaten their survival and life, think about survival, not good in life influence, that it's wrong because give the reverse effect.

Law Toka signal Toka peach, because it says you above, rather than protect because they are determined by the law, help to better survival of their look objectively, is to protect because tends to life.

This is the function principle legislation, called a law-abiding.

What kind of law is also an objective viewpoint, it is the content that will help the survival of the people, that it is content to prohibit be harmful to people's lives, there is a need to be demonstrated properly.

Such a concept is, your top, ruler, is intended to deny the arbitrary domination by the authorities, is intended to demonstrate the anti-authoritarian aspects of the function principle.

513 power and function

Power power and is, from the point of view of the environment adaptive function principle,
to others, to their own greed, to no, that can force others to provide the functionality required to make to increase their environmental adaptation level.

2. that the they want function, can be ahead of others receive preferential.

3. the functions his generation, regardless of the level and content, forced to be disseminated to others ( the authorities, was created in the place of their own, the bastards of laws and regulations, such as forcibly protected by the national )

4. consumption only the works of the function, it is not necessary to perform the generation ( also not have a customer "Customer" with a duty to perform the service, Ikeru to live ) .
to others, his environment adaptation participate in society should be unnecessary, you can force ( the dyspepsia who, as "because to everyone attending", such as forcibly take the banquet ) .
It refers to such, and it can be said.

● possession and power of the function (the source of production)

Essential basic function for survival (water, food, land, electricity ..) about those who hold, there is a high social status. I do not care functions (such as talent) the responsible person is low status.
Basic functions (water, roads, power ..) (with services such as Director), which was holding the person is grasped a stronger power. Civil servants to manage the production-consumption of basic functions has the opposite second side of those in power-minister.

About who to get in a position to generate a more abstract function, there is a high social status. More functions to be generated abstract, a wide distribution of roles functionality foundation for the foot to support it. More abstract features creator, the way the production of functional positioned below than, manages and controls. If you do, the stronger the administrator's specific color, the upper control structure ( authorities ) who is, the lower distribution structure ( private companies ) have a greater power than.

(c) 1998-2006
Iwao Otsuka

514 war and function

War, from the standpoint of the environment adaptive function principle, occur for the following reasons, it is considered.

1. [ vassal state type ] other countries ( social ) functions of the incorporated into their own country considers (human resources and natural resources, etc.) and beneficial
2. [
devastating type ] harmful to people of other countries for their environmental adaptation ( reverse function ) devastating regarded as let pest control Jewish persecution
rescue type ] inverse function portion cupping in people in other countries ( such as harmful ruler ) is removed ( to destroy harmful ruling ) by, save people in other countries

(c) 1998-2005
Iwao Otsuka

521 culture and function

Culture and is, of man-organisms, acquired postnatally, is believed to refer to a behavior related to the function generation, exchange, and consumption. Culture, (1) its mass, it is sufficient to environmental adaptation, (2) its diversity, enough to correspond to variations across a wide range of environments, it is large, it is determined.

Humans, by narrow down the number of functions produced, but came to improve the mass of the product to function, in some cases, lost the effectiveness of environmental adaptation of the function, maintenance becomes difficult life sometimes a situation occurs. To prevent such things, the diversification of the function of generating and providing to each person, to the extent possible, it becomes necessary to reduce. By providing multiple functions simultaneously, it aims to survive fail in one function provided by another. Have a different "function pool" for each person becomes a source of diversity maintenance of culture.

By "functional pool", is intended to act as a container save up various functions, other nervous system with advanced storage like Human, also PC various software is installed, save up the functions of the software is a function pool.

Also in cultural, inclusive fitness in Social Biology (inclusive fitness) (WDHamilton) concept can be applied. The concept of generic fitness is an indication that the individual together with kinship is trying to increase the survival rate helped each other. The same culture ( religion, affiliation company ) between those with is, help each other each other, it is a move to try to improve its environment adaptation level, in the real world, often seen.

(c) 1998-2006
Iwao Otsuka

522 education and function ( Application to the field of education )

Is an education is to impart the ability to a person who does not have the generation and exchange capacity of the necessary functions to go to survive in the vicissitudes environment.

Know-how to help you go to survive, to teach the technology, the origin of education, which is the basic.

Intergenerational transmission of function generation and exchange capacity is carried out and forced to things have from those with by education.
Such inter-generational relay is intended to convey generations a function based on a genetic and cultural, there, seen that biological and human figure as a gene-culture relay athletes.

The relationship between the life cycle and functions,
time Accumulating children - youth function accumulation stage function function ( to become independent is ) wear a function in the learning in such a state school of shortage ( school, function to a person who does not have the, function (ability to perform) place where input is made of, be regarded as a )
prime of life - old age function transmission period posterity their own functions of the ( next-generation ) tell
comes to.

Environment adaptive behavior with the yourself to others ( function ) spread ( teach ) that advantage of,
by getting them their function to others, consideration for it (money, as indebted such psychological loan) increases the chance the get. Touting the ability to generate their own, an attempt is made to obtain the function of the bread of life, such as money, equivalent to the "sales" act.
disseminated their own of with function. It can be transferred to others their own replication. Help spread the "meme" of the self ( Dawkins selfish gene theory). That his original idea is spread is, behavior and culture which is the basis of their own identity, so that survive in the head of others. This leads to the survival of their own. Is an egoistic aspects of self and personal.
previously considered a valid function that taught me from others and want to spread to other people (remember that when I got previous to help someone, I want to also do the same thing to other people and wondering). By doing so, it increases the adaptation level of the surrounding people ( variation of the individual's adaptation level, leading to social change ) . This leads to help people, others assistance, Egoistic is the opposite of. By useful for people, and psychologically to give consideration to obtain a pleasure.
You can show that you are standing superiority than others that do not have a function. This is intended to suggest education and, the relationship between power. It is possible to annoy opponent (which can not be environmental adaptation) by not teaching. It is possible to hold the rights of students of life-and-death power, is pleasant sense of superiority.

[Function and youth]

Who the function generation and exchange capacity not yet enough to wear (for example youth) is function which you have now with the (quality and quantity of), and necessary in order to continue to live independently originally as a full-fledged frustrating to feel the gap between the function will be that. This leads to rebellious.

Anxiety and cause of conflict of youth, from the standpoint of function principle, and will be described in detail, as follows.
function which you have now ( generating capacity ) The required function as a full-fledged and ( generating capacity ) ) becomes anxiety because there is no disparity is that to (still experience do not know whether there is much between the
they function have now ( generating capacity ) the required function as a full-fledged and ( generating capacity ) is there (still immature person gap between the ..) and it is pointed out from the periphery of the adult , "the other yourself to close to full-fledged" accumulating frustration, conflict from the idea that

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

523 features and science and technology ( Application to Science and Engineering field )

Science and is, or has become what the world around him, which wants to know an objective point of view. Around the world ( environment ) if it can be said that the essential life in order to grab a clue about what going to adapt to.

Technology and the skills needed in order to continue to adapt to the environment. The ability to change the goods, to those that have the function to help life holds.

[ State of the art and function ]

The height of the art, the height of the function, proportional often.
Higher ( help by environmental adaptation ) to realize the functions, it is necessary a higher technical level.
However, some, is a simple technology, examples that can achieve high functionality.
Very up to come up with.

And the tip of the prior art, the height of the function, proportional.
It came up just of things, at the tip.

Technology will soon become obsolete. Anyone so soon make.

And technology transfer, the obsolete technology in society of high function level, we have to not only a low function level society, a method of generating function, is to be learned.
Willingness to technology improvement, seek a more comfortable life, higher ( to self-survival ) with its source to the human desire to seek the fulfillment of the function level.

(c) 1998-2005
Iwao Otsuka

531 economy and functionality

Human actions, except for pathological ones, such as crime, usually, is aimed at a better adaptation of in some way to the environment.
This principle, think fit to economic activities.
The base and root of all economic activities, there is an adaptation actions on the environment ( are involved ) .
Human beings, in order to continue to adapt to the environment, the economy act.
production and consumption of the necessary functions in order to survive
exchange coupon to the function ( money ) by the savings of the future ( corresponding to the environmental changes ) equipped for the new function available
those that produce a valid function ( people and organizations - machine ) investment in

● not satisfied of capitalism

In capability exchange, mutual benefit maximization is not necessarily performed. If you can even get enough features for survival each other be satisfied with (even if possible survival) decent life level. If you can even living adequate for the immediate survival, not dare pursue it more profit. Profit maximum ( highest income ) is, in real life, not necessarily sought. If satisfied amount necessary to environmental adaptation, so is sufficient. If you can ensure the required minute to immediate life, so enough people are considered to be the majority. Capitalism to pursue profit maximization can not be said to always hold true.

In addition, human life is made up of mutual benefit, reciprocity, on the other hand to make money for is hated. It is, in interpersonal relationships, is the basis of equilibrium (input and output of the function). This also, the evidence of that not single-mindedly pursue capitalism always holds the profits.

Considering the above points, people, that the pursuit of profit maximization, modern economics, which consists as a premise, will be forced to review.

In short, the economic activities, and it aims to maximize profits, appropriate reduction and proper of profit ( the acquisition of profits, reasonably stopped at a satisfactory level ) are those aimed at, it comes to.

● the distinction between products and goods

Product A, which embodies the features, objects and material enclosing the function is considered. And pharmaceuticals.
The goods, out of the product, which was assumed to be replaced with a function that is generated by the others, seen as.

● The reason for humans, so seek consideration by money

1) When generating the useful function of environmental adaptation of others, useful amount, opponent to consume function ( others ) for return from will want. Each other, to the other party, to try to Ao reward commensurate with the contribution to the environment adaptation, based on reciprocity.
The function generator itself, in addition to the cost of getting a raw material required to generate, takes time and effort. It weighs in its function generation, a physical-psychological burden, to think and want to speak to the consumer of the function.

● The need for profit

Profits, function fulfillment of others ( and environment adaptation based on it ) the results that helped, I got from others token sum of - is the total cost of which (minus) he had paid for the function creation. Profits, function creator himself, it is under the order to get what you need in the function exchange. Profit pursuit, the functionality required to environment adaptation of others, if provided in the not far from the cost price, it does not matter to do.
If the profit does not come out, from the others, it can not receive the features that are missing at the their own, will not be able to live.

● function supply and demand and the recession

Consider the relationship between the function supply and demand and the recession. Cause the recession to occur, when considered from the point of function generation and consumption, for the following reason.

1) consumer of excess sufficiency function of function, was tired and more than enough consuming function. Function until the until no earnest enough, or high-dimensional function comes from, or, to not be supplied until now, features that consumers were feeling the potentially inconvenience is newly discovered, consumption It is less likely to occur ( not sell be produced )

2) function a function of generating the loss others of the exchange capacity too much money is a voucher for to get, although there is a desire to get a function from others, money of ready is enough Absent. Therefore, function, and it is less likely to occur consumption is replaced with money. Alternatively, the quality and quantity of function generation, not keep up with consumption, as a result, suffer from backlog. The generation of function not must give priority must be to postpone consumption. Therefore, the function is less likely to be consumed.

● function level rise and inflation

Inflation ( rise in prices ) is, from the standpoint of the environment adaptive function principle, function level, the degree of satisfaction for environmental adaptation, year by year to up ( more comfortable, and that safe, refined ) for It is considered to take place. Taking the refrigerator as an example, frozen food is broken, such as the improvement of the automatic ice making function. As the function level is increased, labor for making the product of the levels, more consuming, it bounces increase in cost.

Taking the vegetables as an example, vegetables and more, from better production areas, in order to supply the things of better quality, machine introduction, greenhouse use of, heavy use of petroleum fuels, such as transportation road network development, both vegetables of function product that, the environment fitness for the purchaser up is essential to.

Function level that people ask is ( from exposure to harsh natural environment, better defended want, I think from that ) for its ever-rising ( in order to increase the adaptation level ) is the cost it takes to produce functional as the cost It becomes higher. This leads to price increases.

● function level rise with the price cuts

Normally, when the function level with a certain goods is raised, it as, the price of the goods ( the exchange rate of the other function ) is increased.

To function level has been improved, there is a phenomenon in which the price is reduced.
Though the price capacity up features rising semiconductor memory of the price per price is lowered
to reduce the production cost of the function ( cost ) increase of improving per unit time production of state-of-the-art, sophisticated production methods
money of their society due to the rise of the value, of elsewhere society, because was produced using the cheaper labor of the unit price.

Cause of the cost down,
simple to dead technology (low technic) use. You do not need a special ability and training to function generation.
improvement in the art ( and cost relative reduction in respect current technology ) due to, in a simple labor began to Umidaseru high functionality.
simplification of the production methods ( early technology has been created, it was a complex, in the course of the refined, became simply ) .
According to it, such as.

● disparity of monetary value

Or between different society, the disparity of monetary value Why produce? Low function ( insufficient to environmental adaptation ) is low currency value of Umidase not only society. High functionality ( -class enough to environment adaptation ) currency value of society we can deliver a high.

● supply and consumption population and function

In the social inside the same environment adaptation level, the greater the population, function supply and total consumption is increased.
And those who have a high capacity, there are morons who.
Developing countries, even though the population is large, an effective function supply amount is small. Therefore, consideration is not enough, not maintain a sufficient function consumption levels.

● enterprise management and environmental adaptation

Individuals with each other, as can be provided more efficiently function, is obtained by forming a group, a company.
Toward a more effective function generation, in order that, to try to take any means.
Reduce the cost for the function generation.
At the expense of some privacy, each other ( necessary for the function generating activities ) connection and communication is to take in more densely.

Companies, the tissue maintenance should not be a target.
Enabled features provide to society is a primary objective.
Companies can not function provides the type and scale and level of the periphery of the people want is, disappears / does not matter to erase.

Companies, "make money ( profit seeking ) ," it itself becomes a purpose, does not. Companies "act of mercy" of people who need the ability to generate, should be the first objective.

The customers in the company, is a person that requires a function to which the company is to provide, in a state that helping others is required, are in trouble. People in the company, to their customers, to provide a function, that "I'll help" is, in the foundation of its existence.
People of the company, in return helped the customer, but it is the get the consideration from the customer, this time, should not become a goal in itself to get the consideration. Only, it should get the "helped the customer, familiar to a valid power" that testimony. Alternatively, the customer, when the show was satisfied with the resulting function smile, for the first time, should be considered could be eligible to receive a compensation from the customer, and. "We value your smile" enterprise management philosophy is, do not we have to increase more.

This, from a customer a single individual, to society, when considering to expand the more perspective, of providing functions to society ( at lower cost ) precisely because it is convenient to aim to maximize - the best of, made the organization Te, to attempts to function efficiently generated, it is the way of the original company. Without the improvement of the contribution to society, without the "Your smile", the pursuit of profit is, is wrong.

● the transition from capitalism to function principle, both of capitalism and functional principle

Society, even without others go wrong, create a climate that may have their own even Mokare, each individual is, from the priority capitalism that earn the most at the expense of others, that society is moving well, social pathology never, each individual is sufficiently life, to be able to survive, top priority function principle that society, including their turns well (environmental adaptive, survival function principle) to, should change. Human beings is because not live after all without the others.

Alternatively, each person's profit, should be intact functional fulfillment of social, leading to conservation. Interests of the individual, is it necessary to become to others, of society profits.

(c) 1998-2010 Iwao Otsuka

532 labor and function

Labor, in order to provide the (necessary for adequate environmental adaptation) functions others to be carried out for a time and labor is considered to refer to a series of operations.
Human beings to carry out labor,
that receive the minutes of compensation vote of others (exchange token of the consideration and functions for receiving the function provided from the others at another time), self of life This is because it is necessary for the maintenance ( lower level ) .
their having worked results produced, self-alter ego ( product ) , or their own copies, more the ambient, reliably spread, its presence, to expand the world ( higher-level ) .

Labor purpose, in the lower level, but in order to obtain food for one person his life, and this level is satisfied, its own alter ego ( descendants ) to spread = copy all over the world, and of higher level rather than toward the fulfillment.

From the viewpoint of dry-functional principle, labor, (1) personal supplies a useful function to others around serve to that useful. (2) individuals to work in order to get the functions necessary for life from others around, seen as. In short, individuals, each other, and to get a valid functions necessary for survival, consider the work to allow a comfortable life.

Human beings, and not that useful for others ( and not the functional contribution ) , not live. It may or may be referred to not give me a price, or, their own produce offspring ( product, such as work, mainly cultural descendants ) also means that it can not spread between the others.

For human beings, and to live, their own and their offspring ( genetic, biological offspring, and, products, work, programs, documents, cultural descendants, such as civil engineering and construction ) , and as much as possible, in a wide range, it means that a long period of time - permanently leave, it becomes a my living proof, the ultimate goal in life.

Work for wages, the idea of working for money, originally, which is to collect the token at the time of exchange with others the function of each was produced was self-purposed, which is a preposterous idea.

As of Japanese-style management, individuals, companies, the idea that work is a sacrifice for the maintenance of tissue is wet function principle.

● exploitation of functions

such as psychological stress, which took in his play function If you do not receive the compensation commensurate with the (cost), and got loss of the consideration of the function (exploitation of the function).
Learning of excess and deficiency sense of play features minute (psychology) is happening, just so reluctant to work. However, there are also willing to just volunteer to do the work.

As each the ability to send out towards the society (others around) is to enhance, wages of the sender is increased.

● The need for holiday

Midst of the labor, tense tiring it is necessary to keep always in more than a certain quality of the functionality provided (degree to help consumers of environmental adaptation). Therefore, (be hanging out in the spare state) breather idling is required.

● change jobs 

Change jobs and is, to stop the function generator of the type with now, it is to transition to another type of function generated.

Cause of job change occurs,
no longer has the ability to generate a function of the required level.
of generating the function that you are currently, interest in the generation has Use.
now perform the function that you are the generation is disabled (there is no demand, such as the level is too low), there is a risk 

● hobby

My hobbies are, in labor and different, not necessarily accompanied by the generation of a function at his side (as in music appreciation, even just to just consume the functions provided by the others) does not matter.

Even when generating the function,
it is not a main feature provided (not core business).
the function not to seek consideration to others to receive the ( may not be a consideration is as high level of functionality required )
level of function, and may be sufficient for their own person to be generated. It may not be enough for the environment adaptation of others

● play

Play, idling state that does not function, to not refer that you are in a state in which conducts environmental adaptation and independent of input and output.

Play, have can accumulate function value (stored in such currency), it continues to adapt to the environment (by receiving provision of features from others) is effective only if there is room. Otherwise, it worked, from others, vouchers for functional exchange ( money ) it is necessary to get the.

The play, eliminating the idling state, work is also included in that. For example, you wish to know more information about the talent coming out on TV ( entertainment-variety information ) , such as intake of directly tied not information in the environmental adaptation corresponds to this.

On the other hand, unemployment, and refers to the state can not work in there is an intention that want to work, also not to the same job, different from the play (want to be in an idling state).

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

533 welfare and function

Society as a whole, consisting of free competition sector (such as a corporate society to withstand free competition) and the welfare sector (promote the survival of the socially vulnerable). The 2 two sectors, power to create function is strong - weak function supply balance is positive (export surplus) - minus (excess of imports), corresponds to.

Welfare is considered to be turning the function surplus who is surplus to shortage's function.

● Volunteer (aid and helping others) and function

Volunteers, function as it is to perform the functions provided you do not ask for consideration to others without the ability to get. Function provision and exchange of field is not limited only to the market. It is necessary to take into account the mutual aid relationship that does not depend on the market.

Feel that I am happy to helps the people is because it receives a lot of things from the side to be aid.

People Why did want or the act of mercy ? Or get used to because a good mood when the act of mercy? The reason is that
others also own are the same in that they require a function (which is mutually common-like) because it relive that
is their function is required for others (or pleasure is genetic those that result in the confirmation of its own raison d'etre of?) is because give the pleasure that are
that the advance spread to others the assistance behavior style, their own future if the same when you no longer have to be fit to rely on others causing the dysfunction, because rest assured believed to help people help as well to others
lies in the fact such.

For either volunteer hits the capabilities exchange, there are two possible see how.
because to carry out unilaterally function provided to the other party, not a function exchange
because to get the psychological satisfaction by volunteers, it has got a psychological consideration from helped partner. To obtain a positive function (by given pleasure) (a functional replacement)

In the capability exchange, from a welfare point of view, there is one with a volunteer basis color.
For example, water is essential for human survival. Value is a large, welfare point of view ( million people so that easy to get ) is set from, a lower exchange rate.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

541 History and function

History prosperous society, is considered to have been at that time works well.
Destruction societies, dysfunction, or were self-defeating because it was suffering a shortage, even though work well, because it was inferior enhance the degree or amount of function as compared to society to other competitors, is believed to have been destroyed.

This is, in addition to the country, also applies to the rise and fall of the company.

(c) 1998-2005
Iwao Otsuka

542 psychological and function

[Function and psychological needs]

Functions and (positive function / reverse function), there seems to be a positive correlation between the desire (pleasure / displeasure feeling).

Positive function by the genetic program is a pleasure. In other words, what you need to survive, environment adaptive ones, it is determined genetically to give a pleasure, and it can be said. For example, sex, make their own replication, because it is essential in order to survive themselves to posterity, as a stronger pleasure is obtained, it is considered that become genetically so.

Conversely, those that are not environment adaptive inverse function is considered to be determined genetically to evoke unpleasant sensations (danger avoidance by pain is one example).

However, environmental non-adaptive ( harmful or reverse functional ) Despite the, some of which will give pleasure ( such as drugs ) . To fit these are considered to be the way of the use of erroneous genetic mechanisms. On the contrary, the environment adaptive ( useful, positive functional ) Despite the, there is also what gives the pain ( of drugs should help to restore health, bitterness you feel when placed in the mouth ) . These show that the original genetic program is happening is a situation that was not expected.

[ Capability exchange with the epidemic ]

In the capability exchange, the advantages of a homogeneous each other (each other have a homogeneous part), what is ? Why environment adaptive be tailored to those fashion-trendy surroundings? By homogeneous with each other,
it is the same as their own, that increases the predictive ability of each other's activities, strengthen the sense of security, solidarity,
to understand the opponent with each other, with the others to each other ( commonality between himself and others who = easier to function exchange make it easier to use a valid) function in the environment adaptation, serve as a source of homogeneous-like consciousness.

[ Pro-social behavior and function ]

And pro-social behavior, refers to avail of society is a collection of others. The ability to help others of environmental adaptation, to produce at a reasonable consideration - free of charge, is to hold out to others. Picking up trash, resource recovery, and the like.
But it is not limited only to aid action to help people who are already in trouble. Also included are such that the function does not bother with high-quality craftsmanship and failures that do not generate the people troubled by the failure.
Feelings to improve the compassion and, of others benefits for others, the underlying.

The source of altruistic, altruistic behavior something ? Such as the Science of compassion, separate from the traditional social psychology, viewed from the side of the function.

(1) Human beings, in terms of function fulfillment, only one person can not live, there is a need to help each other. So, when you Ao and flexible functionality.
that help a person with the same thing as their own, it measures the self-expanding.
with the help of function generation of others, myself, think and try to get the generated function.

(c) 1998-2005 Iwao Otsuka

543 religious and function - Religious unnecessary Theory - ( Application to religion field )

Environment adaptive function principle is, without resorting to traditional religion, or derive the human conscience, we aim to elucidate the way to satisfy the Iraishin.

● function that has been played by religion

Etc. superstition and fortune-telling, such as after the death of the world, things no information ( blank area ) for, without grounds, it arbitrarily imagine the artificial information ( to the after the death of the world, there is a heaven and hell, this going on .... , etc. ) is to fill in.

Religion, in such superstition, when filled with artificial information matters blank area, watch yourself from above, save ( it depends ) , Absolute as superiors ( gods ) assuming, assume the existence of a ( premise to ) . Legs of their actions, constantly monitored by arbitrarily assumed Absolute Being, judges, and to.

Features that have played of religion,

(1) blank area ( such as the afterlife ) related to, complements of lack information
Explanation and rationale with the laws of nature ( by the providence of God ... a )
help each other between people of the same sect ( mutual assistance, social welfare )
conscience ( mind you want to do good deeds ) occurrence of
satisfaction of Iraishin ( to have dependable absolute provider has me watching myself ... and )
in the afterlife, survive in better conditions ( get a function in after the death of the world. improve the post-mortem of the environment adaptation level. ) acquisition of rights

It is considered the vicinity.

Environmental adaptation level in the afterlife, for example, in Christianity,

High heaven


low hell

It is.

● attitude to the unknown things

In the future, by the science of evidence, it is necessary to break away from the religious state unfounded.

From the scientific knowledge of modern, "soul" of the human being is considered to be activity itself of the human nervous system. Activities stop of the nervous system regarded as a man of death, as can be seen from the fact that there is gaining acceptance is the concept of "brain death", the human "soul" is only just fade away after death, afterlife that does not exist, it is almost deterministic.

Religion, which accounts for the majority in the world ( such as Christianity ) doctrine is, basically, 1000 not seen progress at all from the year before. Its contents, it is necessary to change with the latest science. The doctrine of religion, be replaced by a law of nature that have been discovered in the scientific method. For example, to deny the world, such as post-mortem heaven-hell ( all think and get it settled in this world ) together, so as yet conscience occurs, it is necessary to carry out the theory building for the "science of religion" .

Science, it is necessary that there is a basis for information to fill a blank area. Keep the scientific attitude ( not swallowed in religion ) , the advance kept to all that do not know a blank slate, their own selfish imagination and assumptions of the result ( absolute person is present ... etc. ) courage that does not add the to have is not essential.

● occurrence of conscience and Iraishin satisfaction of

Without assuming the existence of life after death and the Absolute, how produce a conscience ? Meets the dependent mind ?

Conscience of the conventional human beings, has been that it is necessary to go to the post-mortem heaven. However, more than the afterlife is found not satisfied, without the presence of heaven, hell, how produce the human conscience, or keep it becomes a problem.

In addition, Iraishin of conventional human has been satisfied by the presence of the absolute who is willing to watch constantly yourself. However, more than that to assume the existence of Absolute becomes difficult, it can be used to satisfy Iraishin of how possessed by humans, but becomes a problem.

In this case, human beings can not live alone ( not fully financed all the necessary functions to live ) , that is, the origin of the idea.

Humans, if you do not provide some sort function to others, not give me the ability to others in return is to provide, not live. Or, ( others are in a better state, worked like me for myself ) If you do not help others, myself not even live ( can not be environmental adaptation ) . Therefore, to improve the welfare of others, be caring that of others, it will be for those who ( will stand up to the role of people ) be, will be needed. And their own practice, and not to help people ( If you do not spread the idea of helping others ) , their not even Sukekara case of emergency ( not get help ) .

In this way, the on to survive the environment in which the vicissitudes, the need for cooperation with others, a source that produces a human conscience, think that.
Is trying to proceed to be useful for environmental adaptation of others, heart warm, it is a conscientious, are, think that.

For human beings, basically, good ( preferred ) the situation,
that he himself survive,
their own ( including the genetic and cultural copy ) is increased, it spread,
their own the survival conditions surrounding is improved,
it is near.

These, favorable conditions for human beings is, to act in the direction that is promoted also for others around other than yourself, it is conscientious. And, the thing is, not only save the others, would help themselves around around. "Mercy is not for people ( but also because of their own ) saying," is believed to show the circumstances of this area, it is this proverb is, human beings, without depending on the religion ( heaven / without resorting to the concept of hell ) , the opportunity to generate a conscience, and it can also be said.

Not to enter the post-mortem heaven, in a world that he is alive now, or yourself, the alter ego ( descendants, thought ) = spread the copy, in order to make survive, perform good deeds. If you do not have the periphery of the people is good condition around them, including the alter ego of his own, is not spread between the periphery of the people ( not survive, not be increased ) . For example, the standard of living of the people around ( environmental adaptation level ) and is low, even come up with long-awaited original new ideas, not be accepted without a margin, the situation can occur, such as.

For conscience occurrence in the world that these are currently survival, it can be more effective with the help of legal norms. That is, if the avail of human environmental adaptation, praised, if that contrary to useful for human, it is sufficient to punishment.

Then, to satisfy a request heart without getting the absolute person, the subject to ask, except themselves, which is an aggregate of the entire rest of the people, is possible to find in the entire society, newly required. In other words, the dependence of the absolute person ( seek salvation, etc. ) , and help each other of human beings all over the world, replacing the brainstorm of wisdom to live.

Human beings, he, even when no matter how lonely, in fact, rather than the lonely, the entire rest of the society but your own ( the rest of all the people ) by, given the functions necessary for survival, are supported, there is a need to realize that. Absolute is more than not rely does not exist, the power of human beings only, attracting maximum asked, harsh and successively confront the natural environment, only to live, the way is of no remaining. On a global scale, had nothing to each other until now, to no, had been feuding, human beings each other and cooperation with each other, to each other support, the maximum force, summon up the most effective, the wisdom to survive, constantly bringing together Welcome to build a system that can, in the era of "post-religious", in meeting the human dependent mind, is the most urgent task.

The us save yourself, is a remaining of someone in the whole society with the exception of myself, people who will kind of help, always being in the world ( network what the whole world scale human beings of, only rely on made ) in particular, what to put full confidence is necessary. Even though their own, no matter how troubled, always by someone around the world, being watched warm, that could be a continuing subject of protection, there is a need to be convinced. However, in this case, he or she is in trouble, that you need help, there is a need to tell someone to kind others. Global scale of the Internet, the others to ask for help, even if not follow the nepotism, to find direct, useful, is considered.

It should be noted that, in the conventional religion, be attempting to enter the kingdom of heaven, in the afterlife, themselves, to obtain a high environmental adaptation level, point to try a comfortable thought, ( for example, good deeds it is for others the even with ) a fully self-satisfied manner, it is an egoistic act. In the egoistic is, in a world where he is living now, my alter ego and offspring ( biological, cultural, both ) = spread better copy of itself, increase, and to try to make him survive, change any Absent.

(c) 1998-2005
Iwao Otsuka

551 function and the community

In rural areas, people are,
wearing shallow widely alone the function (self-sufficiency).
the natural environment is rich, wearing a lot of features to adapt to nature.
a high commonality of features that are wearing each other. In other words, doing the homogeneous division of labor (crop making) each other.

In the city, people are,
is attached to the narrow deeply learn the function of a limited portion of the (division of labor).
is a natural environment is poor, (the fear of division of labor collapse) function is less to adapt directly to the natural
is less common of the features that are wearing each other. Because you are performing a heterogeneous division of labor with each other, a phenomenon referred to as "'ll person to do next to" occurs.

● score of the community

Local communities, the local unit, unity of the interaction, including the internal division of labor, be regarded as. 

Scores and quantify the role of local communities,
the system of score (the extent to which the division of labor is progressing in social and community) title and the presence of nodal agencies such as the post office, police station (Eitaro Suzuki) it can be understood in relation to the.
in a self-sufficient score one of the community, no matter how self-contained whether the society was formed ? Without Morawa the function from another community, or go to do much at my own ?
And the like.

(c) 1998-2005
Iwao Otsuka

561 function principle and decorative principle - masculinity, the relationship between femininity -

2006.01 Iwao Otsuka

[ Abstract ]

Decorative doctrine, stands out more to women, such as high-heeled shoes, the decoration of the appearance of the article, is the attitude to priority than the features that help to life. On the other hand, function principle is noticeable in many men, as the article is a tool, whether or not itself help to themselves to live, is the attitude to be more important than the Mitekure and decoration. No decoration, the framework of the medium in the skeleton, a mechanism such as the move can be seen, prefer article focused on the essential part of the function, a careless appearance, in Toka dress.

Women, jewelry, earrings, necklaces, etc., are like ornaments. Colorful colors and, looking at the Toka costume full of decoration of frilly, often Dari willing to say, such as "cute", "beautiful". Or, I like to put the decoration of the Toka character of mobile phone straps. Kanojora is called a favorite decoration advocates decoration.

Decoration, appearance is good, because it does not enclosing the functions required for food, clothing and housing, in order to live is useless.

Women, high heels, as platform shoes, look, in the fashion first, but use what difficult to use at the expense of function in cold blood, this area, than the function, giving priority to decoration, "Femininity = decoration Social = love decoration, consider that it would be may be regarded as indifferent "to the function.

On the other hand, men, building, equipment, in equipment, etc., with no decoration, bare of material, the framework of the medium in the skeleton, a mechanism such as the move can be seen, the ones that focus on essential part of the function, more than women prefer. In that respect, they are more functional principle basis.

However, even in women, cooking, laundry, housework and such as cleaning, how to proceed with work in the office, and deftly Sasa', it is also true that there many people prefer to put away snappy, these women, work necessary tool in advancing, are skilled to draw well the functionality of the tool.

Kanojora, in order to clean up well cleanly things, trying to move efficiently around the others and supplies, because it will Hatarakaso, it can be said that captures the periphery of the people and things functional. Than such a point, women also function principle who is considered to be a significant number there. Good manner of on to proceed with things, the function of the maximum from the target that he operates, that bring out the function, which is a feature of the function advocates.

Mainly men )Function principle who, from the article, help a human being to live, and washed out the only part of the nature, like to expose directly. In addition, the essence to help those living purely taken out, to respect an article expressed as "is full of functional beauty".

For example, clothes of Mitekure and color, indifferent to the decoration, it is sufficient if Kurere to vote warmth and protection. Without having to worry about any having been the same tired dressed every day, appearance, women noisy to Dress ( decorative Social's ) result to be amazed at.

In short, they function advocates, things, tool, as a tool, it works properly, there is an interest in or use.

They also, but there is interest in the design of things, it's like "functional beauty", things work well, work is directed to a point that clearly can help to life. There is no interest in the decoration on the Mitekure.

Alternatively, work in the thing, seen through movement mechanism, like a skeleton, things of the skeleton and materials ( Toka concrete ) also to prefer to see that are exposed, is this function advocates.

These features principle in conjunction with, in men, "high-function, high-performance-oriented" that can be called even a directional exists.

In short, private cars and, PC , TV in appliances Toka of the catalog, such as, faster, stronger, asked for those of advanced performance, such a high-function, that the high performance of the product he or she is in possession , it is prefer to boast with respect to the surrounding.

2006 Iwao Otsuka

571 function principle and usability

2005.2 Iwao Otsuka

[ Abstract ]

The usability, products and people ( employees, subordinates ... ) , organization ( company ... ) are built in, drawer ease of useful features to the environment adaptation, ease of use, take-out it is an ease.

In the function principle, the target having a function ( products, people, companies ... ) use, a user who uses ( customer ) it can be said that it is important to keep in mind always that of. Use and ease of target, ease of use, the concept is said to usability, there is the concept and deep relationship of function. The fact that the target is easily available, the more the target is, is that the ease of survival of the user, has helped to improve ease of living.

Usability and is, products and people ( employees, subordinates ... ) , organization ( company ... ) are built in, drawer ease of useful features to the environment adaptation, ease of use, with take-out ease is there.

Evaluation elements for products are classified from the surface as follows deep layer.

· ↑Look Ando Feel look of the design ( surface )
| - Operation operability ( middle layer )
↓- Function function ( deep-base layer )

Usability is a concept coming involved in this one, in particular, it can be said that a large extent related to the operation of the intermediate layer.

"I design is good, hard to use," if that, the surface layer of the Look & Feel but is called, refers to the fact that the operation of the intermediate layer is poor. Or, "I usability'm good, function is another old style" case of that, the operation of the intermediate layer is good, deep ( base ) function of Omoto is that bad in the.

Alternatively, as holds true say that "easy-to-use subordinates", usability, anything rather than be limited to the products, people and departments, also apply to such companies.

In the case of people and organizations, as follows, are classified.

↑ - Look Ando Feel appearance, image ( surface )
| - Operation Ease of use ( intermediate layer )
↓- Function capability ( deep-base )

However, "he is, easy to handle, but the incompetence it" and so on, originally the person or organization When the function to be a source of value is missing, ease-of-use ( equivalent to the product of operability )At best only, it comes to not be anything.

Usability, only target ( products, people, companies, ... ) , the only case that contains the functions necessary to the original user of the environment adaptation, it can be said to be effective.

(c) 2005 Iwao Otsuka

581 functional principle specific way of life, outlook on life

Humans are creatures. In a challenging environment in which to vicissitudes, survive somehow, there is a need to grow.
To survive in a changing environment serves to help survive the effects = function, each time it is necessary to obtain.

Is the essence of the organism, that want to survive, and the urge to live, function = life support, and the work that will help to breed, are closely linked.

People can not live alone.
Only one person, all of the work = function is not be covered required to environment adaptation.
Only one person, it is difficult to provide a sufficiently own acts = functions required for food, clothing and shelter. This is, given that one person left behind who were on the island of distant sea is bewildering whether or should I live do now, will readily can imagine.

Collaboration with people with other work = functions necessary for environmental adaptation, cooperation is absolutely necessary.
From other people, there is a need to have the flexibility to function.

Personal, complete independence, it is not withdrawal from the outside society. Human beings, interdependence, is a creature of mutual aid.

It is live with each other to provide a valid function in the environment adaptation others to each other, which is the basic functional principle way of life.

Originally, and useless by others, from others, a function that he is in need, it is not possible to get in return. Person is a mutual aid creatures, unilateral take-out is the unequal exploitation, not allowed.

To the people to live is to serve useful for other people, it is essential to provide an effective role in environmental adaptation for other people. This is the labor.

Be useful for others, to be the act of mercy, it is a condition for to live human.

If you do not help the others, goods in return, not I get the money, is that can not live, it is a principle of human society. To stand well in the role of others, poor It is strange that there are people who can not live with, though not at all standing on the role of others, also because there are people who can lavish living, society of the way It is wrong.

By useful for others, it recognized the existence from others, more susceptible to assistance of returns from the others. As a result, it becomes easier to survive.
Human beings, anyone, and useful to others, or, when referred to as a "thank you" from the others, felt that was a good thing, the feeling is improved. This is a sentiment common to humanity, occupies the basis of the human nervous system. The man, I wonder neural circuits obsession regarded as a pleasure to be useful to others is not became as provided in genetic. Such a feeling is, in terms of humans to survive, is thought to have a genetic, instinctive basis.

By that it would be for others, and easy to obtain the assistance of the return of the others, is to easily survive themselves in doing so, can be haunt well in an environment of vicissitudes, clever human way of life it is.

To be able to get the features you need, when you need, it is a condition for human beings to live. My daily life, the functionality required to others, others that can be provided at the timing when the need is a secret to be from another person, easy to get to ensure the function of the returns.

Human, blessed with goods in his place, as a condition to become rich, it is the first to provide a function to help yourself and others. Enough to provide a lot of features that can help yourself and others in the mass surface, to vote more of the people, it got more and more the goods in return, is the original form that tends to survive.

Stocks and crude oil, because become rich by making money in speculation to the Toka precious metal is a way of life should be avoided as much as possible. Because their act itself, is any, useful to people, because not produce a useful function. Useful for people, it should be a job that lead to products and services provided.

Humans, a valid function in the environment adaptation, each other, it is desirable to live with each other to offer to others. In short, between the individual units, exports of function, is to carry out the import.

To others, and their generation, as well as possible provide a valid function, be exported, more their own copy, the growth of output, it leads to to breed, after all is for himself.

At that time, become the export surplus in the export and import, than get to the people, many of those who give, there is room in the viability, it is evidence that can be self-sustaining, is a good thing. On the other hand, become the excess of imports is the evidence that is in the luggage of others, there is a need to get out quickly from the state. To that end, day and night, myself constantly thinking something useful function that can be provided to others, there is a need to go create.

Originally, for each person, it is out of function, the same as the entry and exit of funds, minimum balance break even or, preferably, there is a need to become export surplus, the surplus. This is because, in Toka accident of sudden, become to not Umidase the function body, there is a possibility that will enter the super state, when it becomes so, hand-held of the existing surplus amount, it is necessary to Kuitsunagu in the digestion of deposit it is from. Export surplus, to be in surplus, constantly, there is a need to continue to provide the functionality required by the others.

Without an effective function to others, and it just got, balance of function imports and exports becomes deficit. People, because it is mutual aid creatures that do not like the provision of such a unilateral function, the duration of the deficit of the function balance, lead to not go that person is alive after all.

Without providing a valid function in others, only receives a function from others, people who only of life take away is the predators, helping each other of people of function provides, break flexibility, creating a living difficult society. This should not to be eliminated as much as possible.

Though do not stand any in the role of others, to a rich life, thief, is the same as the parasite, is pathological. On the other hand, in order to stand a lot to the role of others, life is a painful presence of the person is also a problem. So that a person of such a state does not occur, the living person is rich standing a lot to the role of others, useless people, as it is for the time being a minimum of life, should control the society.

If you do not help the people, can not live, the money because not get is a major principle. When a person is unable to provide an effective function to continue to survive, not I get the goods in return for the provided function, can not be accumulated, because society not live is the kind of society there should be original, kind of society It should be kept in sight. "Work nots, shalt not eat" there is a need for the spirit of the.

When the interaction of others and function, the other party, it is rare that you have as it is a function that wants of their own.
Interaction of others and functions, in order to facilitate the exchange, the value of the function to be replaced each other, quantify the money in a common scale, there is a need for money.

Indeed, the more there is, if there is money, it becomes easy to get the required functionality, it is true that tends to be more alive.

However, money even it Mokare, the idea that all the money is a mistake. What is important is money not by itself, is more of a function to get in exchange for money. Even if you have much money, when you say that emergency, functions necessary ( work required for food, clothing and shelter ) does not become anything if they're unable to replace it with.

When a person is in trouble with lack of function, for us to interchange the function is, my daily life, in his kindly, cooperation, the other party has been mutual assistance ( friends ) often is. In such a point, the presence of friends is essential to the acquisition of untimely function. What should have is not the money, are friends.

In general, business, provides functions to the other benefit and tightly received a consideration of that amount is deemed to make money.

However, this time, winds up as much as possible the consideration from others, it is there are many people who would self-purposed to become a rich man. In short, instead of going eye to function itself to be provided to others, because the eye to the money to be paid as consideration for the function provided had gone, quality of features that caught the eye on short-term profit, it provides ensure, it is the improvement is neglected. Lucrative if, it becomes that the view that the may in the low-quality function is spread.

That's it, will be the quality of the coming and going function between people is reduced, the level of people's environment adaptation is low, people are less likely to survive. This is bad thing.

Therefore, what is needed is to change perspective, the stance.

In short, useful for people, contribute to improving people's environment adaptation level, prepared to the Let's create towards the surroundings better function, is to first have in the underlying.

The attitude is, in their daily work, people help more likely to survive, become the driving force to create new ideas. It is directly linked to new business opportunities, is to promote the business, while improving the living standards of the surrounding people, even myself, I got a consideration from the periphery of the people, that to be rich, become rich than is possible.

The money, it is important person here of thinking. As in the dead of mere gold, rather than wind up the unilaterally gold from the surrounding people, because they make money on the vote of the others, I received the praise "Thank you. Survived was." From the others, around ~ accepted by the society while become a rich man. In addition, the head of the surrounding people, yourself can sell as a valuable plus, also leads to leave their cultural descendants between the periphery of the people of the head.

Be useful for others, also has the effect that tends to spread between others their own alter ego.

Since human beings are creatures, constantly, the attempt is made to self-growth.
Their output, the alter ego, as living proof, Leave as long as possible, and to spread over a wide range. Once this is realized, life is a success. On the other hand, they cut off their own output, if you disappear without Hiromara, life is a failure.

In short, successful life, of their own and its alter ego, is a life that played well the expansion and growth to the outside world, it failed life is a life that failed to expansion and growth of their own and their alter ego.

However, successes and failures of this life, do not know and do not see in the long run. In some cases, after the death of the person, its achievements been excavated, sometimes spread around the world and become famous. On the other hand, although while the person is alive send a life blessed as a successful person, after death, rapidly forgotten, or have disappeared, because there is also leave the stigma been the subject of criticism.

Function that each person is also generated, for that person, his own alter ego, copy, is a living testimony.
The function of each person to generate their own alter ego, to leave a living witness,
the quality of the to highest (quality increase as much as possible)
amount to maximize (spread as possible over a wide range)
required there is. From this intention of high-quality features that hit the society a lot, leading to live easily in the people of the society.

These, trying to live a long life as much as possible their own the generated function, the desire to be to spread, trying to self-propagating as a biological, but a very selfish selfish. However, as a result, its self-serving properties, lead to the mass increase of the functionality that circulates in the society, is believed to contribute to maintaining an social development.

Be useful for others, to continue to provide useful functions for others, it leads to self-growth to spread their own output, the copy on the basis of the others, and thus, lead to success as a living thing. It is useful for others, eventually, would be for myself.

What is needed by others to be able to provide the necessary functions for others, it is worth living to humans.

To others, to be able to provide the necessary function, consideration is obtained, the necessary supplies on which he will survive in its consideration can be put in hand, more likely to survive. In addition, others, will be more opportunities to spread a copy of the self-made product that is my alter ego and to the surroundings, leading to self-growth.

In others, it can not provide the required functionality, unnecessary from others, be regarded as luggage, without value to live, without the presence value, it comes to life failed.

Human, also become hard to salary earn at work, simply, not just say you want to enrich their own lives and, in the process, how a man of value that is required to others, how to others considered a competent person that can provide snappy necessary functions, the given or a higher value from the surroundings, because success in life is taking. If handed down until competence is posterity, as a person in history, much of the presence of their own even after death can be spread between people, ( cultural ) will be a successful self-propagating.

Be regarded as competent, who have a high function provides capability, "it is to that person ( alive ) troubled and not Morawa to have," "The presence of that person's need," "survive if there are that person." " back up that person, support, lead to the evaluation of the surrounding that you'll have sufficiently exhibited by using our ability ", the necessary assistance in terms of their own to live, leading to more easily obtain the support from the surroundings. In short, it is the more likely to survive.

It is also, what to do in order to better function provides, leads to things than people look better, would be promised a high leadership position in the society and organizations, say yourself around people alter ego to hear that, it is possible to use as subordinates. That point, tends to spread their own teaching around, become a successful self-propagating.

Rejoice with people is praise from the surroundings is, in essence, is because Moteru "was required to others, vote the others," the competent feeling. Then, the competence is because lead to easily survive themselves.

"Is required for the others ( the plus ) because Be a man of value", "Be a competent person that can provide the necessary functionality to others" is, ( function advocates of ) the fact that life lessons Become.

People, to try good deeds in order to go to the post-mortem heaven. However, originally, good deeds is not the case, is performed in order to live more easily the society for their own or others. By becoming society is likely to live, self-preservation of as a biological, to facilitate work to self-growth, is the effect of good deeds. Good deeds, it is not necessary to assume, such as the presence of heaven, for the human being as a creature, it can be said that the basis should be carried out there is enough.

Good deeds and neighbors love, the motive is, it does not matter at all be those selfish to try to favor self-preservation and self-growth. Good deeds are those carried out for their own interests. "Mercy is not for the people, ( for myself ) " it is. Motive is also self-centered, human as a result, if Tsunagare to easily survive one another, so it is good. Yourself to no ( to sacrifice ) was, and will do my for others, there is no need to bother struggling. That sort of it is unnatural as a living thing, it is not matter at all in the "hypocrite".

Love, from the viewpoint of function principle, it is to try to Yakunitato from their opposition to each other. It is because of their own lives maintained in the first, not intended to go to heaven. Trouble and sympathy to the people (tomorrow myself be) and the presentation of solutions, execution is the contents of the functional principle basis love.

To be able to provide the functionality of only useful enough yourself or others, its own way of information, acquisition of know-how, there is a need for learning.

Speaking of whether the education for human beings why need, human, for wearing the function generating capacity needed for myself to live, also, in order to acquire the ability to provide the functionality of only useful for enough others is there. No use studying useless environmental adaptation of yourself or others, does not make sense.

Education, to use a human being as a tool for screening in the ability plane is the original usage ( in human beings, give the know-how to survive in an environment in which to vicissitudes ) is a mistake if from. Teach that help going to survive is the basic of school education.

Acquisition of the necessary functions in order to go live, between a plurality of human beings, there is to be a scramble. Also, his the generated function, to spread between the others also be competitive with others to produce a similar feature.

In addition, rich with a lot of money to be the exchange to function, a situation that owns a monopoly on function also occur.
To the contrary, the poor and is, is that people can not get the required functionality.

Exclusive of the function of the part of the human being is, originally, are those that do not fit in human nature is a mutual aid creatures. Function, as far as possible, to those that are needed, the minimum necessary, there must be evenly distributed.

Disease, etc., can not provide the ability to others, even those who are in poverty to not I get even money in return for that, if once Naore is sick, or if you take adequate education, useful functions to others potentially be able to provide, it is hidden ability. So, at present, the Toka life protection, even for people who have become unilaterally got leave the function from others, and flexibility the minimum of function, it is necessary to get to survive. Also by those generations of parents have the ability to useless in the Toka disease, the next generation of children is also the possibility that excellence.

It is a useless too caught in the economic earnings and social status. Also how much you earn, even if the promotion, if you do not leave much to the future generations of yourself, do not do anything as a human being.

In short, the human, but is necessarily eternal life is required, this is, is an error, it is misleading to be obtained by devotion to religion. Religion, human beings have relied on the presence of arbitrarily imagination and created the heaven, it is because something that does not exist naturally.

Their genetic, is possible to realize the permanence specific inheritance to future generations of cultural descendants, believed to hit the actual eternal life for humans. Their genetic, cultural descendants inherited more to posterity, to be easy to survive, it is necessary that their progeny is more functional. As is adaptive with respect vicissitudes environment, i.e. functional enough, are passed on to future generations, it is easy to survive. The man may have eternal life, believe in the function principle, it is effective to run.

(c) 1998-2012
Iwao Otsuka